A Dictionary of London

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A Dictionary of London by Henry A Harben contained historical notes of streets and buildings in the City of London, including references to other relevant sources. It was originally published by H Jenkins Ltd., London, 1918.

The publication is beset by copious abbreviations which can be found at the bottom of this page.

Original

Abbot of St. Alban's Inn This was the town house of the Abbots of St. Albans, prior to the dissolution of the monasteries in the time of Henry VIII.

It stood at the east side of Old Broad Street, to the north of St. Anthony's School, and was purchased by Edward Ketcher, pewterer of Thomas Leighe about 1544. By his will, dated 5 Elizabeth, the property was devised by Edward Ketcher to his son John (Inq. p.m. Lond. II. 38), who was Alderman of Cripplegate Ward, 1588-96.

It seems probable that Cushion Court and Adams Court, Old Broad Street (q.v.), now occupy the site approximately.

Abbot of Waltham's House See Abbot's Inn.

Abbot's Inn The town house of the Abbots of Waltham. On the west side of St. Mary At Hill (Street), south of the church. In Billingsgate Ward.

There is a long account of the house in the Archæologia XXXVI. ii. pp. 400-10, from which it appears that the land on which the house was erected was acquired by the Abbey of Waltham during the 12th century from various owners for the purpose of erecting a residence for the Abbots, when occasion required that they should be in London.From the Minister's accounts in the Augmentation Office, temp H. VIII., it seems to have been an extensive and considerable mansion.

In 1218-21 the Abbots had erected a chapel in their court adjoining the church of St. Mary de la Hille (H. MSS. Com. 9 Rep. p 17, MSS. D. and C. of St. Paul's). In 1500-1 the site of the Kitchen of the house was acquired for the church of St. Mary at Hill from the Abbot of Waltham, and the south east aisle of the church was erected upon it. The quit rent of this aisle after the dissolution of the monasteries was payable to the king. (Records of St Mary at Hill, I. 240, 391, E.E.T.S. ed.) After the dissolution of the monastery, the Inn known as Waltham or Abbot's Inn passed into private hands and was in existence until destroyed in the Great Fire, 1666 (L. and P. H. VIII. D.S. Vol. x. p. 530 and Lond. I. p.m.2 and 3 P. and M. 138).

A chamber in the Inn was used as a school house in 1523-4 (Rec. of St. Mary at Hill I. 321).

The Abbots also possessed property on the other side of the street.

Abbot's Lodging A messuage called "le Abbottes Lodgyng" in parish of St. Sepulchre, between St. Sepulchre's Churchyard south, and Cockes Lane north, tenement of late prior of St. Bartholomew's and the vicar of St Sepulchre's east, and the garden pertaining to the "Sarsons Head" west (36 H. VIII. 1545. L. and P. H. VIII. XX. (1) p. 124).

The messuage must have stood on the west side of Giltspur Street, north of St. Sepulchre's Church and Churchyard in Farringdon Ward Without, and east of the Saracen's Head, so that the site is easy of identification, but it does not appear what Abbot had his lodging here.

Abchurch See St. Mary (Abchurch).

Abchurch Lane South out of Lombard Street at No. 15 to 133 Cannon Street (P.O. Directory). In Langbourne, Candlewick and Walbrook Wards.

Earliest recorded form of name: "Abbechurche lane," 20 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1887).

Other forms: "Abcherchelane," 1313 (Ct. H. W. I. 239). "Lane of St Mary de Abbechirche," 1346-7 (ib. I. 492). "Abchurch lane," 1557 (ib. II. 666).

The street was cut into two portions by the formation of King William Street, 1831, and a considerable number of houses in the centre of the street were demolished for this purpose.

Named after St. Mary Abchurch, situated on the western side of the lane.

Abchurch Yard On the north-west side of Abchurch Lane at No. 17, south of St. Mary Abchurch, to Sherborne Lane, at No.14 (P.O. Directory). In Candlewick and Walbrook Wards. First mention: (P.C. 1732). In O. and M. 1677, the site is occupied by St Mary Abchurch Churchyard, hence the name.

Abergavenny House See Stationers' Hall and Pembrook's Inn.

Abroke See Turnmill Brook.

Acheliagestrete See Addle Hill. Probably the "c" is a misreading for the" t" of the manuscripts.

Acorn Alley , Court.-See Acorn Street.

Acorn Street ,-West out of Bishopsgate at No.128 (P.O. Directory). In Bishopsgate Ward Without.

First mention: (Lockie, 1816).

Former names: "Acorn Alley" (O. and M. 1677-Lockie, 1810). "Acorn Court" (Strype, 1720, I. ii. 108).

It seems to have been rebuilt since 1799 and widened. Elmes in 1831 also mentions "Acorn Court" at No.125, and so does Lond. Guide, 1758.

The street is much shorter now than as it is shown in O.S. 1880, in consequence of the Metropolitan Railway extensions, and there are only a few houses in it.

Dodsley says it was named after the" Acorn," which stood on the site of the present King's Arms Tavern, No.128, Bishopsgate, and see N. and Q. II S. III. p.3.

Adam and Eve Alley See Adam and Eve Court, West Smithfield.

Adam and Eve Court North out of Angel Alley, Bishopsgate Street Without, near Skinner Street (Lockie, 1810-Elmes, 1831).

Name derived from the sign, which was a favourite trade sign and the arms of the Fruiterers' Company.

Site now covered by the Metropolitan and Great Eastern Railway lines, etc.

Adam and Eve Court ,-West out of Petticoat Lane in Portsoken Ward, in the parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate (P.C. 1732 -Boyle, 1799). Not named in the maps.

Adam and Eve Court South-west out of Duke's Place, through New Court to King Street. In Aldgate Ward (Lockie, 1810-Elmes, 1831).

Former name: "Adam's Court" (Rocque, 1746 -Boyle, 1799).

Named after a sign, as in previous case. Removed for the formation of Mitre Street

Adam and Eve Court North out of West Smithfield to the City boundary in Farringdon Ward Without (Horwood, 1799).

Former name: Adam and Eve Alley" (O. and M. 1677-Dodsley, 1761). The site is now occupied by Smithfield Meat Market.

Adam Court , Old Broad Street.-See Adam's Court.

Adam's Court East out of Foster Lane, in Aldersgate Ward (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 120). No further reference, and not named in the maps.

Adam's Court South out of Dunnings Alley in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype 1720). Probably named after the builder or owner. The site is now occupied by the lines of the North London and Great Eastern Railway Companies.

Adam's Court , Duke's Place. - Adam and Eve Court.

Adam's Court ,-East out of Old Broad Street at No.11 (P.O. Directory). In Broad Street Ward.

First mention: "Adam Court" (O. and M. 1677).

Seems to occupy part of the site of the old inn or town house of the Abbots of St Albans (q.v.).

Adbryght Lane " Tenement in parish of Aldermanbury being the 18th of twenty, counting from the Church of Aldermanburye to Adbryght Lane," 36, H. VIII. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.17).

In Cripplegate Ward Within. Perhaps identical with Addle Street, but possibly lying further north.

Addelane See Addle Street.

Addle Hill South out of Carter Lane at No. 51 to Knightrider Street in Castle Baynard Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention: 1649 (L. and P. Commonw. 1.523).

Former names: "Adling Hill," 16oo, "Shoemakers' Holiday," printed there, 1648 {L.C.C. Deeds, Harben Bequest, 1600 -1700, No.132). "Adlestreete" (S. 365). " Adlingstreat," 1585-7, in parish of St. Andrew in "le Wardroppe ,' (London, I. p.m. III.105). "Adlyns Street," at the further end of the street called Knightrider Street, 12 Eliz. (ib. II.125).

The earlier forms are : " Athelstrete," 1392 (Cal. P.R. Ric. II. 1391-6, p. 185). Athelestrete," 1334 (Ct. H.W. I. 399). " Athelingestreet," 1283-5 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Press A. Box 4, 109). " Adhelingestrate," in parochia sancti Benedicti a la Huthe, 1244 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Press A. Box 4, 688). " Athelingestrete" in parochia sancti Andr. de Castro baynardi, 1272-80 (ib. Box 2, 313). " Achelingestrete," 1349 (Ct. H.W. I.606). "Achelingestrete," 1285 (D. and C. St. Paul's Lib. L. f. 93).

In former times the street extended south to Upper Thames Street, so that some portion of the eastern side lay in the parish of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf. This southern end was demolished for the formation of Queen Victoria Street.

The earliest form of the name seems to be " Adhelingestrate" or " Athelingestrete," and it can easily be seen from the foregoing examples that the present name is a corruption from the earlier forms.

The name may have been derived from the old English "ethel" = home, dwelling. from "etheling " = noble, prince, or from the Saxon name "Athel," which seems to be the more probable derivation.

Addle Street West out of Aldermanbury to Wood Street at No.43 and to Silver Street (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within.

First mention : " Addlestreete " (S. ed. 1598, p.231). Earlier names and forms : " Adelane " or " Adeistrete," 1556 (Ct. H.W. II. 66o). ,"Addelane," 33 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2451).

Described elsewhere in deeds relating to the same property as" The lane leading from Aldermanburi," 31 Ed. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2457 and 2459).

"Adelane," 4 Ed. III. (ib. 2452). "Adellane," 34 Ed. III. (ib. 2455). "Athelane," 1367 (Ct. H.W. II. 105). "Adlyngstrete," 1400 (Cal. P.R. H. IV. 1399-1401, p.193).

It seems probable from the description of the property at the last-named reference, as situated "between the church of St. Mary at the end of Stanynglane end and Adlyngstrete," that this latter street is to be identified with Addle Street.

Adlane," alias " Adellane," 2 Eliz. (1560). (Lond. I. p.m. I.202). "Adlestreete," 1611 (Ct. H.W. II.734). " Adle Street," Leake, 1666.

Stow says he does not know the origin of the name.

Inhabited by Joiners (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 90).

In 1633 ed. of Stow's Survey it is suggested that the name is derived from King Adelstane, who is said to have had a house with an entrance in Adel Street, and that in evidences the street is called " King Adel Street." There do not appear, however, to be any records giving this form of the name. The Saxon word" Atheling "means" noble," the word" ethel "=home, dwelling, etc. The earlier forms set out above suggest the derivation from the personal names "Ade," "Adel," or " Æthel," " Adda," all of which occur in early records.

Adelaide Buildings In Adelaide Place, London Bridge (P.O. Directory). A block of buildings adjoining London Bridge. Named after Adelaide Place.

Adelaide Place South from King William Street at No.40 to London Bridge (P.O. Directory). In Bridge Ward Within. Erected about 1835 as part of the scheme for the formation of the approaches to the New London Bridge, opened in 1831. Named after Queen Adelaide, consort to William IV. The site is occupied in the maps of the 17th and 18th centuries by small courts and alleys, " Churchyard Alley," " Red Cross Allev," Graves' Wharf," " Gulley Hole," etc. Contains " Adelaide Buildings," the houses adjoining London Bridge.

Adelaide Place See Silk Street, Cripplegate.

Adelane (Adel Lane) See Addle Street.

Adelburga (St.) See Ethelburga (St.).

Adhelingestrate See Addle Hill.

Adle Streete See Addle Hill and Addle Street.

Adling Hill See Addle Hill.

Adlingstreat See Addle Hill.

Adlyngstrete, Adlyns Street See Addle Street and Addle Hill.

Aernselde (or Berneselde) A tenement so called in possession of William de Wynton in parish of St. Peter de Wodestrete in Westchepe, 1349 (Ct. H.W. I.555).

In 1380 it was in possession of Richard de Kyllyngworth (ib. II.216).

Not further identified. See article on " Selds."

Africa House On the south side of Leadenhall Street, Nos. 44 to 46, east of Billiter Street. In Aldgate Ward.

First mention: " African House" (O. and M. 1677). Part of the site was then occupied by Whitchurch House. Strype calls it" Royal African House" (ed. 1720 and 1755).

Originally the offices of the Royal African Company, a trading Company formally established by Act of Parliament, 23 George II. The Company seems to have been formed as early as 1588, and before coming to Leadenhall Street, they had their offices in Warnford Court, in Broad Street Ward (L. and P. Chas. II.1672, D.S. XII. p.87). The original Company got into debt and surrendered their Charter to the Crown, assigning their estates to a new company incorporated in 1672 as the Royal African Company. The house in Leadenhall Street was pulled down in the 18th century to enlarge the East India Warehouse in Billiter Lane and in 1766 the offices were in Cooper's Court, Cornhill, being removed later to 3 Suffolk Lane, Cannon Street. The Charter was recalled in 1821 and the Company's possessions on the west coast of Africa incorporated into the colony of Sierra Leone. Strype says that Sir Nicholas Throgmorton lodged in the house in Leadenhall Street before the Company went to it (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 54). Now occupied as warehouses, etc.

African House See Africa House.

Aggate, Aggat's passage See Borer's Passage.

Agnes (St.) In Aldersgate Ward. It seems at any rate in later times to have been identified with the church of St. Anne (q.v.) and to have been calied sometimes "St. Agnes," sometimes " St. Anne," and sometimes " St. Anne and St. Agnes."

First mention: "St. Agnes de Aldredesgate," 1 Rich. I. (H. MSS. Com. 9. Rep. p.2).

Other forms : " St. Agnes," 52 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1515). " St. Agnes" by Aldrethes-gate," 54 H. III. (ib. A. 1530). " St. Agnes near Aldresgate," 1281 (Ct. H.W. I.52). " St. Agnes infra Aldresgate," 1291 (Anc. Deeds, A. 9528 and 10,412). Latest mention: "St. Agnes within Aldrichesgate," 6 Rich. II. (ib. B. 2007). Patrons:

Dean of St. Martin le Grand, 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I.235). See St. Anne and St. Agnes.

Alam (Alarm) Yard, Crutched Friars See Allum Yard.

Alban (St.), Wood Street On the east side of Wood Street, at the corner of Little Love Lane (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within.

Earliest mention found in records: Temp. John. "St. Alban Wudestrate" (Anc. Deeds, A. 2484).

Other forms: " St. Alban de Wodestrate," 1286-7 (Ct. H.W. I.80). " St. Alban Wodestrete," 33 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2451).

Rebuilt 1634. Burnt in the Fire 1666, and rebuilt 168~ by Sir C. Wren, at a cost of over £3000. The Parish of St. Olave Silver Street was united to it (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 92).

A Rectory. Patrons: Hospital of St. James and afterwards the Provost and Fellows of Eton College, who now present alternately with the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's.

Strype speaks of the church as of great antiquity, probably not later in date than King Adelstane (Athelstan), 10th century, whose house, according to tradition, was situated at the east end of the church, and built of the same kind of stone as the church (ib. 76). In support of his opinion, he draws attention to the dedication to St. Alban, the first English martyr. and to the early work shown in the building, the Roman brichs inlaid in the walls, the turning of the arches and the heads of the pillars (ib.). In the Parish Clerks' account of the church it is said to have been built in or about 930 (p.1). Newcourt says it belonged originally to the Abbey of St. Albans, and that the Abbot in 1077 exchanged the advowson for that of another church with the Abbot of Westminster (1.236).

He gives Matthew Paris as his authority for the statement. If this statement is correct, the dedication to St. Alban, which is of rare occurrence, would be explained.

Alban's (St.) Court West out of Wood Street at No.91 with a passage south to Oat Lane (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within.

First mention: Horwood, 1799.

Named after the Church of St. Alban, Wood Street. Former name: "Fryingpan Alley" (q.v.).

Albert Buildings On the south side of Queen Victoria Street at No.37, at the corner of Queen Street (P.O. Directory). A large block of offices, etc.

Albion Buildings On the southern side of Bartholomew Close at Nos. 11 and 13(P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

First mention: Horwood, 1799.

A stone gives the date 1766, probably the date of erection. Rebuilt 1887.

Situated at the rear of the Albion Tavern, Aldersgate Street; hence the name.

Albion Chapel, Moorfields A Presbyterian chapel at the south-east corner of Finsbury Pavement, on the north side of London Wall. In Coleman Street Ward (O.S. 1880).

First mention: Greenwood, 1827.

Erected after the removal of Old Bethlem Hospital in 1814 for the members of a Scotch congregation. Removed for the erection of Tower Chambers (q.v.).

Albion Place North out of London Wall and then east. In Coleman Street Ward (O.S. 1880).

First mention: O.S. 1848-51.

It is shown in Greenwood's map 1827, as a passage unnamed, east of Albion Chapel, leading to Albion Hall. Removed for the erection of Tower Chambers. Named after the Albion Chapel (q.v.).

Albion Tavern A famous tavern on the west side of Aldersgate Street at No.153.

Albion Wharf Between Anchor Wharf and Horseshoe Wharf on the Thames, in Castle Baynard Ward (O.S. 1880). Site now occupied by warehouses, etc.

Alborgth (St.), Alborought (St.) See Ethelburga (St.), Bishopsgate.

Aldedenes, Alden's Lane See Old Dean's Lane and Warwick Lane.

Alderchgate Street Messuages in this street are described as in the parish of St. Olave in Old Jewry in the ward of Colmanstreat, between tenements formerly belonging to the late Priory of St. Bartholomew Smithfield, north and the highway east, I552-66 (Lond. I. p.m. II.67).

No later reference.

It seems hardly possible that the street can be identical with Aldersgate Street, unless there is a detached portion of St. Olave's parish and of Colemanstreet Ward in or near Aldersgate Street. There is no record of any such detached portion.

Alderman Parson's Stairs See Alderman Stairs.

Alderman Stairs On the Thames at East Smithfield, between Miller's Wharf west and Carron Wharf east.

First mention: Rocque, 1746.

Forms of name: " Alderman Parsons Stairs" (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831). " Parson's Stairs" (Horwood, 1799-Greenwood, 1827). "Lady Parson's Stairs" (Elmes, 1831). " Alderman Stairs" (O.S.). " Person's Yard " (Strype, ed. 1720).

Name derived, as Elmes (Topographical Dictionary, 1831) suggests, from a former owner.

Sir John Parsons was Alderman of Portsoken Ward 1687. Humphrey Parsons, Alderman, 1721-41, and Sir John Parsons, Fishmonger, M. 1704, is described as a son of ... Parsons of St. Katherine's, Brewer (Strype, ed. 1720, II. Bk. V.p. 152).

Aldermanbury North out of Gresham Street at No.69 to 16 London Wall (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within.

Earliest mention found in records: In early times there was a soke of this name "Aldresmanesberi," mentioned in a list of property in London belonging to St. Paul's (c. 1130), (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. ff. 47-50), and it is probable that the earliest references are to the district or to the church of St. Mary, rather than to the street.

Other forms of name : " Aldermanesbury," Ric. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1952). " Aldermannebury," 4 John (ib. A. 1502). "Aldermannesbury," temp. John (ib. A. 1501). "Aldermanburi," Is John (ib. A. 6884). "Lane called Aldermanbury," 10 Ed. 111.1336 (Cal. Close R. Ed. III.1333-7, p.653). See under Mary (St.) Aldermanbury.

There are frequent references temp. Ed. I. and Ed. III. to the "Capital messuage" of Aldermannebury and to "manerium" or "managium" de Aldermanbury, but it does not seem to have been in existence in Stow's time. It has been suggested by Stow that the first Guildhall was on the east side of the present Aldermanbury (Street) further west than the later building, and that the district received its name as being adjacent to, or, as having within its precincts, the "bury" or "court" of the aldermen of the city.

The northern portion of the street from Addle Street to London Wall was called" Gay-spore lane" until about the middle of the 18th century. See Gayspur lane.

Aldermanbury Avenue West out of Aldermanbury at No.47 to Philip Lane (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within. Erected 1885. The site was formerly occupied by Sion College.

Aldermanbury Conduit In the middle of Aldermanbury near St. Mary Aldermanbury Church. Commenced by Sir William Eastfield, Mayor, and by a codicil to his will dated 1445 he directed that it should be completed at his expense (Ct. H.W. II. 510).

Stow tells us that it was finished by his executors in 1471, and that he had directed that water should be brought from Tyburn for the supply of the Conduit (S. 17, 18, 294, 526).

Strype describes it as built tower-wise (ed. 1720, I. iii. 90). Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt. Taken down in the 18th century.

Aldermanbury Euildings On the east side of Aldermanbury at No.27, leading into St George's Avenue (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within. Used as offices, etc

Aldermanbury Postern North out of London Wall at No.129 to Fore Street, opposite St. Alphage Church (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 92.

Former names:-" Postern," Hatton, 1708. "First postern," Rocque, 1746.

So called from the street of Aldermanbury, of which it is the northern continuation, and as marking the site of one of the old postern gates in the City Wall. This postern was originally called the " Little Postern," but in later years " Aldermanbury Postern."

Aldermanecherche, Aldermannes-cherch Ernald de Berkele was presented to the church of" Aldermannes cherch "in the king's hands by voidance of the see of Canterbury, 1234 (Cal. P.R. H. III.1232-47, p.38).

Basing lane was in the parish.

Possibly to be identified with St. Mary Aldermary.

Alderman's Walk West out of Bishopsgate, on the north side of St. Botolph's Church, at No. 117 (P.O. Directory). In Bishopsgate Ward Without.

First mention: Rocque, 1746.

¶Strype tells us that adjoining to St. Botolph's Churchyard was an open passage leading to a large house and garden belonging to Francis Dashwood, deceased, and in his maps he calls this walk Dashmoods Walk (evidently an error for Dashwood). Francis Dashwood was Alderman of Walbrook Ward, 1658 (Beavan, I.222). Hence the name of the street. Sir Samuel Dashwood had a house in Devonshire Square (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 109).

Aldermary Churchyard East and south of St. Mary Aldermary Church, from Budge Row to Bow Lane (O. and M. 1677-L.C.C. List, 1912). There were houses in the churchyard in Strype's time (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 24). See Romayn's Rent. The churchyard seems to lie to the south of the church now, in Bow Lane.

Aldermarychurch See Mary (St.) Aldermary.

Aldermen The Court of Aldermen of the City of London forms with the Common Council the Corporation or governing body of the City. The Lord Mayor is the senior Alderman. The Court consists of 26 members, representing the various Wards into which the City is divided. The number of Aldermen has varied accordingly from time to time with the number of the Wards, as may be seen from the lists of Aldermen and Wards set out in the Letter Books of the City. The Aldermen in early days, as the name denotes, being derived from the O.E. "aldor" = an "elder, chief, prince," were men of note and high standing throughout the kingdom, equal in dignity and importance to the Senators of ancient Rome. Only men of the highest character and capacity could attain to this rank and the veneration in which the office was held in London in early times is emphasised by the fact that the Wards were known originally by the names of the respective Aldermen who presided over them and not by their present topographical designations. This change in designation which took place about th 13th century is indicative of the change which gradually came about in the nature of the office and in the functions to be discharged by the Aldermen. It is not possible within the limits of this work to deal adequately with this subject, nor to furnish lists of the Aldermen of the City, but much valuable information is contained in the admirable history by Mr. Beavan in 2 volumes, entitled the "Aldermen of London." It is not an uncommon occurrence to find the names of Aldermen commemorated in street names in the City, especia]ly in those of later formation, as Alderman's Walk, Skinner Street, etc.

Aldersgate One of the principal gates in the City Wall, at the northern end of St. Martin's le Grand, and leading into Aldersgate Street, on the site now occupied by No.62 in that street (Rocque, 1746).

Stow speaks of it as one of the first four gates of the City, serving the northern districts (S. 34), and this view receives confirmation from the considerable Roman remains that have come to light in the neighbourhood from time to time.

Earliest mention found in records "Ealdredesgate," Etheldred's Institutes, 10 and 11 Cent. (Thorpe's Anc. Laws, p.127). But the MSS. are of the 13th century, or the latter part of the 12th century, and not authoritative as to the original form of the name.

Other forms "Aldredesgate," Reg. Clerkenwell Priory (12th century), quoted by Dugdale, IV. 83 (Cott. MS. Faust. B. 11. B.M.). "Aldredesgate," 49 H. III. (Anc Deeds, A. 1983). " Aldridesgate," 53 H. III. (ib. A. 1870). " Aldretheggate," 54 H. III. (ib. A. 1590). "Aldrethesgate," 54 H. III. (ib. A. 1530). " Alresgate," 1272-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 14). " Aldresgate," 1274 (ib. '9). "Aldreidesgate," 1285 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p.210). "Allereddesgate," 1291 (Ct. H.W. I. p.100). " Aldrichesgate," 1283 (ib. 67). " Aldersgate," 1307 (ib. 192). (But this is probably not the form in the M.S.) "Alcheresgate," 28 Ed. I. (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.37). " Aldrichgate," 1316 (ib. 264). " Aldrisgate," 1349 (ib. 547). "Aldrichegate," 1349 (ib. 605). "Alderichesgate," 1349 (ib. 622). " Aldrechegate," 1351 (ib. 665). " Alderychgate," 1361 (ib. IT. 17). "Alderichgate, Alderichegate," 1361 (ib. 27). "Alderesgate," 1363 (ib. 81). "Aldrychegate," 1380-1 (ib. 222). "Aldrychgate," 1407 (ib. 370). "Aldrychesgate," 1433 (ib. 465). "Aldrisshgate," 1436-7 (ib. 481). "Althergate, Altergate," 16th Century (Machyn's Diary).

In 1335 it was ordained that the gate should be covered with lead and a small house made under it for the gate-keeper (Cal. L. Bk. F. p.15). It was taken down and rebuilt 1617, repaired and beautified in 1670 after the Fire and again in 1739 by the Lord Mayor.

In 1750 the apartments over the gate were occupied by the Common Crier, and the eastern postern, which had been shut up, was reopened.

The materials of the gate were sold for £91, in April, 1761, and the gate taken down.

With reference to the derivation of the name, Stow says it was so named for the very antiquity of the gate, as being one of the first four gates of the City, but this derivation is obviously wrong, as in none of the forms in which the word is met with could it possibly denote" Old Gate."

The name is almost certainly derived from the personal name" Ealdred "or " Aidred," The form found in Etheired's "Instituta Londoniae" quoted above, but Mr. Loftie's statement that the Aldred in question lived in the time of the first Mayor of London (i.e. at the end of the 12th century) is clearly wrong.

The name appears in so many forms, as shown in the list set out above, that it may be of interest to classify the several forms according to the derivations which (taken by themselves) they would suggest, appending to each separate form the number of times it occurs, in the Court of Hastings Wills, Liber Albus, etc., Riley's Memorials, City Letter books, and other authorities consulted.

1. Aldred's Gate: Aldredes (5), Aldrides (3), Allereddes (1), Aidrethe (1). In all ten instances between 1263 and 1343.

2. Aldrich's Gate: Aldrich (15), Aldriche (13), Aldreche (1), Aldrych (1), Aldryche (2), Aldryches (1), Alderich (1), Alderiche (4), Aldriches (32), Alderiches (1), Alderych (1), Aldrissh (1). In all seventy-three instances between 1283 and 1587. 3. Ealdor's Gate, i.e. the gate of the prince or alderman ; Alderes (1), Aldres (47), Aldris (1), Alders (4), Alder (2), Aldir (1), Alther (5), Alter (1). In all sixty-two instances between 1214 and 1597.

The form " Alres " occurs once in 1272, and although so early, must be a corruption from one of the other forms. It is remarkable that the forms suggesting "Aldred" should occur so infrequently, and that the other forms should make their appearance so early. But in dealing with the derivations of names, it is the earliest forms that are the most important, however scanty in number they may be.

Remains of a Roman ditch were found here on the site of the General Post Office, 75 ft. wide and 14 ft. deep, much wider than the remains in other parts, and it is suggested that it may have been part of a later scheme for strengthening the defences of the City (Arch. LXIII. p.278).

Aldersgate Alley In Bishopsgate Street. Mentioned in Middlesex Sessions Roll, 33 Chas. II. (Midd. Co. Rec. IV. 154). Not further identified.

Aldersgate Bars At the north end of Aldersgate Street, marking the boundary of the City liberties in that direction.

Shown in Rocque's map 1746 at the northern end of Pickaxe Street, as it was then called.

In 17 Rich. II. the liberty of the City extended as far as a post stuck in the ground at the corner of Sir John Syfrnast's house, which formerly belonged to Adam Stable, in Gosewellestrete" (Cal. L. Bk. H. p.397).

The site is marked by two granite obelisks, with drinking fountains attached. See note on Bars (The).

Aldersgate Buildings East out of Aldersgate Street at No. 91 (P.O. Directory), In Aldersgate Ward Without.

First mention: (Horwood, 1799).

Aldersgate Street North from St. Martin's le Grand at No.62 to Goswell Road (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward Without, but the northern end lies outside the City boundary, in the Borough of Finsbury.

First mention found in records : " Aldredes-gate Street," 44 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1953).

Other forms of name : " Aldresgatestrete," 33 Ed. I. (Cal. L. Bk. B. p.129). " Aldrichesgate Street," 1332 (Ct. H.W. I.382). Aldergatestrete," 1349 (ib. 620). " Aiderichegatestrete," 1361 (ib. 11.28). " Aldirgastrete," 1383 (lb. 237). " AldersgateStreete" (S. 311).

In Rocque's map 1746 the northern portion from the Barbican to the Bars is called Pick-axe Street," and in Stow and Strype, " Goswell Street." Aldersgate Street" in Horwood, 1799.

Shaftesbury Place, Lauderdale Buildings and Westmoreland Buildings all in this Ward commemorate some of the famous houses which stood in this street in earlier times.

Named after the Gate of Aldersgate.

In the course of excavations for building the French Protestant Church at the eastern end of Bull and Mouth Street, in 1841, portions of Roman buildings were discovered. A portion of the wall ran east to west, and its continuation under the pavement indicated the exact spot where the northern gate of the City stood. A base of flint stones was found at a depth of 11 1/2 feet from the surface, 1 ft. 6 in. in height, on which rested layers of angular uncut stones imbedded in mortar, 4 ft. 6 in. high, covered by two courses of tiles; above the tiles was a ragstone wall 2 ft. 6 ins. high surmounted by two courses of tiles and another course of ragstone terminating 18 ins. under the pavement at that date. The height of the wall was 10 ft., varying in width from 9 1/2 ft. at the base to 6 ft. at the top. The wall was apparently bounded by a ditch on the north, as the workmen had to excavate 20 ft. deep for a foundation through black earth or sediment. Similar walls, etc., were found on the opposite side of Aldersgate Street, being continued to the bastion in Cripplegate Churchyard (Arch. XXX. 522-4. R. Smith, 55).

A Roman wall was found at a depth of 6 ft. 9 in. extending from Aldersgate Street to King Edward Street. A line of buildings based on this wall formed the southern boundary of St. Botolph's Church. It is probable that the church and churchyard occupy the site of the Town Ditch. The length of the wall was 131 ft., height 11-12 ft. A tower also found was apparently of later date (Arch. LII. 609 et seq.).

Aldersgate Street Station On the west side of Aldersgate Street at No.135, at its junction with Long Lane (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward Without.

First mention (O.S. 1875).

Erected about 1865 Occupied the site of Red Lyon Inn, Cock Inn, etc.

Aldersgate Ward One of the twenty-six wards of the City, on the northern side, bounded on the east by Cripplegate Ward, on the south by Farringdon Ward Within, on the west by Farringdon Ward Without, and extending north to the borough of Finsbury. It is divided into an Inner and Outer Ward, the southern portion within the City walls being called Aldersgate Ward Within, and the northern portion outside the walls, Aldersgate Ward Without. There is only one Alderman for Aldersgate Ward.

First mention found in records: "Ward of Aldreidesgate," 1285 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p.209) Called, "Ward of John Blakethorn," 1277 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p.265). Taking name of the north gate of the City (S. 305). In Stow's time it contained five parish churches: St. Anne and St. Agnes; St. Leonard, Foster Lane; St. Mary Staining; St. John Zachary; St. Botolph, Without Aldersgate. Formerly also the Collegiate Church of St. Martin le Grand. Of these churches only two remain, viz. St. Anne and St. Agnes, and St. Botolph, Without Aldersgate, the others having been destroyed in the Great Fire 1666 and not rebuilt. The parish of St. Leonard, Foster Lane, was united to Christ Church, Newgate Street, that of St. Mary Staining to St. Michael, Wood Street, and that of St. John Zachary to St. Anne and St. Agnes. See note on Wards.

Aldersgate Ward School Behind 77 Little Britain; a few doors from Aldersgate Street (Lockie, 1810). Founded in 1702 for children and adults, or children only of the poorer classes in the parish of St. Botolph, Aldersgate.

Amalgamated with the National Schools in 1861, and carried on at 160-1 Aldersgate Street.

Aldgate One of the gates in the City wall on its eastern side. It stood in the midst of the High Street, at the south-eastern corner of what is now Duke Street. It is shown in Leake's map 1666 and in Agas, Guildhall ed. 1578. There is a plan of the gate in a survey of Holy Trinity Priory made 1592, now at Hatfield (Home Co. Mag. II). The old gate stood 25 feet east from the corner of Jewry Street. See Plate IV.

It is described by Stow as one of the four original gates in the wall and was new built in 1108-47, and again in 1215.

Earliest mention found in records: "Alegate" occurs in the grant by Matilda in 1108, of " Portam de Alegate," to the Prior of Holy Trinity (Cal. L. Bk. C.-p. 73) and Allegate," 1108, Anc. Deeds, A. 1880.

Dodsley (1761) says it is mentioned in a charter of King Edgar dated 967, but he gives no authority for the statement, and the charter is not given in Kemble, Birch or Thorpe.

In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ed. Plummer and Earle, p.181) mention is made in 1052 of the " Æstgate" of the city, and in the " Miraculi Beati Edmundi Regis" by Hermannus, written about 1070 (MS. Cott. Tib. B. II. I), the city was entered "a via que anglice dicitur ' ealsegate.' "

Both these forms may well have been used to designate "Aldgate" in early days before its name was finally determined.

The earliest form of the name in all records is " Alegate," " Algate," and this form continued in general use until the 16th or 17th centuries The form "Aldgate" does not occur until 1486-7 (Ct. H. W. 11.589), and this may be an error in the text of the Calendar, and the 'd' may not occur in the MS. itself.

The dwelling-house above the gate was let to Geoffrey Chaucer in 1374 (Cal. L. Bk. G. 327-8). It was rebuilt in 1607-9, and when the gate was finally taken down and removed in 1761, some Roman coins were found under it. It was re-erected at Bethnal Green, but was pulled down not long after, and no trace of it now remains.

The name of the gate still survives in the Ward and street of Aldgate. Stow derives the name from the "antiquity or age thereof," but in this he is certainly wrong. The spelling in all early documents is, as stated above, usually" Algate," and the "d" is invariably absent. It is intrusive and may be entirely disregarded in determining the derivation of the name. Mr. Loftie, who is "shocked at Stow's ignorant guessing," says that it means "free to all." But he does not show how or why it was more free than other gates, nor does he hazard a suggestion as to the original form of the word.

The true etymology is undetermined, but several suggestions have been offered. Colonel Prideaux suggests in N. and Q. 9, S.I. 1, that it may mean the gate of the foreigners from "ael "=foreign. This word "ael" in Anglo-Saxon, besides being used in place of the prefixes " eal "= all, and "el "=foreign, is also used for " ele "=oil, and has further the meaning of "awl," so that there is here plenty of material for guesswork.

It may be connected with " ale', in the sense of a feast, as in the word " bridal," or in the sense of an ale-house. If the reference given above containing the form "ealse" can be taken to apply to Alegate, it suggests that the gate may have been named after some one called "Ealh," an owner or builder, as this personal name was in general use in Anglo-Saxon times. The east gate of Gloucester was known as "Ailesgate" from "Æthel," and it is conceivable that the " ale " or " Alle " in Alegate is derived from the same name "Æthel," the" th" having dropped out early, but in the circumstances the name "Ealh" seems the more probable derivation.

Portions of the foundations of an old gate (probably mediæval) were found in 1907 on the south side of Aldgate High Street, 25 ft. east from the corner of Jewry Street at a depth of 16 ft. 6 in., and on the north side of the street in 1908 under the Post Office (Arch. LXIII. p.266).

Aldgate (Street)West from Aldgate High Street to Leadenhall Street at its junction with Fenchurch Street (P.O. Directory). In Aldgate Ward. This name has been adopted since O.S. 1848-51.

Earliest mention : " Alegatestrete," temp. H. III. (Ane. Deeds, A. 7319).

In the 14th century the name seems to have included part of the street outside the gate even as far as the Parish of St. Dunstan Stepney (Ct. H.W. I.593, II.332. Anc. Deeds, C. 549, and C. 799), and down to Stow's time it extended westward as far as Lime Street (S. 140), including part of the present Leadenhall Street. In the 14th century the name seems to have been also given to the eastern end of Fenchurch Street (Cal. Close R. Ed. III.1364-8, p.338, and Ct. H.W. I.401, 1334-5).

Other names: " Aldgate Within" (Hatton, 1708-Boyle, 1799). " High Street Aldgate" (Rocque, 1746). " Aldgate High Street" (Horwood, I799-Elmes, 1831).

See Aldgate High Street.

Name derived from the Gate.

Aldgate Avenue North out of Aldgate High Street at No.24 and east to 25 Middlesex Street. First named, December, 1890.

Former names before its rebuilding: " Black Bull Alley or Yard " (O. and M. 1677-1799). " Bull Inn Yard " (Horwood, 1799-1890). ,"Bull Yard " (O.S. 1848-51). The Black Bull Inn stood there and gave its name to the yard (Hatton, 1708).

Aldgate Churchyard This is the churchyard which is still in existence, adjoining to and surrounding the Church of St. Botolph, Aldgate. In Portsoken Ward.

Aldgate Churchyard (New) -There appears to have been a new churchyard or burial ground attached to the Church of St. Botolph, Aldgate, for the use of the parishioners in the 18th century, on the east side of Churchyard Alley, Rosemary Lane.

It is described by Strype (ed. 1720, I. ii. 26) as within the boundary of the Ward of Portsoken, which must therefore at that time have included, as it originally did, the districts of St. Katherine's and East Smithfield.

The site was afterwards covered by Royal Mint Square (q.v.).

Aldgate Hermitage In a turret of the City wall near Aldgate built 4 feet without the turret of the said wall in the King's highway (Inq. temp. Ed. I. quoted Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 5).

Garden on the south side of Alegate called " the Hermitage," 19 Ed. II. (1325). (Cal L. Bk. E. p. 193).

Brother John, "inclusus de Alegate," 42-3 H. III. was allowed to transfer himself to the hermitage near Cripelgate (Cal. P.R. H. III. I258-66, p. 29).

There were numerous hermitages in the City in these early times.

See Anchorites.

Aldgate High Street From Duke Street at 19 and 20 Aldgate to Middlesex Street at 146 Whitechapel High Street. In Portsoken Ward.

Formerly called also: " Whitechapel Street " (O. and M. 1677-Rocque, 1746). Aldgate Street without Aldgate" (L. Guide, 1758). "Aldgate High Street without Aldgate" (Lond. Rev. 1728). But the form "Aldgate High Street" seems to have been the one in general use from the beginning of the 18th century.

It must not be forgotten that Aldgate High Street forms part of one continuous thoroughfare extending from the junction of Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street to Mile End, and beyond the boundary of the County of London and indeed of Middlesex.

The part included within the City boundary is now known as: "Aldgate," from the east end of Leadenhall Street to Duke Street (in Aldgate Ward) and "Aldgate High Street," from Duke Street to Middlesex Street (in Portsoken Ward).

But in early days the name " Aldgate " or " Alegatestrete " (as it was more often called) had a much wider application, and was variously used to denote the high street extending from Lime Street to Whitechapel and Stepney beyond the City boundary, as well as apparently some part of Fenchurch Street or Jewry Street and Crutched Friars.

Thus mention is made in old documents of: Tenements and rents in " Alegatestrete" in parish of St. Katherine Colman in 1334-5 (Cal. of Wills, Ct. Hust. I.401). Tenements in " Algatestrete" in par. of Allhallows Stanyngechurche 1367 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Ed. III. 1364-8, p.338). "Little Jewry in Algatestrete," 14 Rich. II. 1391 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Rich. II. 1388-92, p. 417). Surrender at Court of Stebenhuthe (Stepney) manor of reversion of three shops, etc., in parish of St. Mary in " Algatestret," 9 H. V. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2630). (This must be St. Mary Matfellon or St. Mary Whitechapel.) "Whitechapel in Algatestrete," 36 Ed. III. (Cal. Feet of Fines, Lond. and Midd. I. p.139).

Stow, in his Survey of London (ed. 1603, p.140), describes the street of Aldgate as extending from Aldgate Pump to Lime Street.

It should be noted that in all the early forms, the name is written without the" d.

" Alegatestrete " 10 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1950). " Allgaitestrate," 13 Ed. I. (Chancery, I. p.m. (65)). "Allegatestrate," 1309 (Cal. Wills. Ct. H. I. 207). "Algatestret," 1349 (Cal. Wills. Ct. Hust. I. 596). Named after the Gate of Alegate.

Aldgate Pump At the junction of Aldgate High Street with Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street (S. 140-O.S. 1875).

Taken down 1876 and a drinking fountain erected on the site.

There was a well called " Alegate well" adjoining the City wall in temp. John (Anc. Deeds, A. 1978).

Aldgate Ward With Tower Ward the easternmost ward of the City within the walls (O.S.).

Earliest mention : " In warda Alegate," c. 1130 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. ff. 47-50).

Called also: "Ward of John de Northampton," 1279 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p.206), and 2 and 3 Ed. III. Rot. Hund. I. 420).

In early deeds and documents the name is always spelt " Algate," "Alegate." "Algatestrete" Ward 9. H. VII. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1588).

Bounds set out in Stow 140-1, and Strype, ed. 1720. Strype says the ward is coterminous with the soke of Aldgate given by Matilda to the Priory of Holy Trinity in 1108, and he sets out the boundaries from Liber Dunthorne (ed. 1720, I. ii. 55). The boundaries are also given in L. Bk. C. p.224, but they seem there to be confused with the Portsoken given to the Priory by the Knightengild.

Named after the gate.

In the Ward: 3 Parish Churches: St. Katherine Creechurch, St. Katherine Colman, St. Andrew Undershaft. 2 Halls of Companies : Fletchers' Hall, Ironmongers' Hall.

Fletchers' Hall is now used as a warehouse.

¶The Prior of Christchurch said to be Alderman of the Ward of Alegate 13 Ed. II.1320 (L Bk. E. p. 8). This seems strange, as he was always ex officio Alderman of Portsoken, not of Aldgate. The Priory of Holy Trinity was in this ward on the site of Duke's Place, etc.

Aldgate Ward School Between Duke Street and Mitre Street, east of St. James' Church, with a passage into Mitre Street (O.S.) at No.2 Mitre Street (End. Charities, Rep. 1902, p. I). Est. 1717 for boys and girls, under 34 trustees (ib.).

Funds transferred to Official Trustees of Charitable Funds 1899 (ib.). Now a Church of England Public Elementary School for boys and girls, under management of a Committee (ib.).

Aldgate Well See Aldgate Pump.

Alexander's Yard East out of Water Lane and south to the wharves (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799). In Farringdon Ward Without.

Named after the owner, or builder of the yard (Dodsley).

The site is now occupied by the City of London School (q.v.)

Aleye (La) Shops situate within " la Aleye in parish of St. Michael," 1371 (Ct. H.W. II.140).

See Alleys.

Alfies Lane A tenement in " Alfies lane" measuring "xxxv ulnas et palmu" in front towards the street " contra portam sancti Pauli versus aquilonem " (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Lib. L. f. 149). In the index to the book it is described as "yvieselane," alias " Alfieslane."

House in " Alsies Lane," 12th century (H. MSS. Com. 9, Rep. p. 25).

Qy=Ivy Lane (q.v.).

Alfred Buildings On the west side of Cartwright Street, East Smithfield.

Erected by the Metropolitan Industrial Dwellings Co. Ltd., commenced in 1884, this being one of several blocks.

The blocks occupy the site of Cartwright Square, Well Yard, Turner Street, Providence Place, etc.

Alfred Place South out of Paul's Alley, Redcross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without, leading into Aldersgate Street (L.C.C. List, 1912).

First mention : " Alfred Court" (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

Alfrichburi Land so called claimed by the precentor of St. Paul's, as belonging to his prebend of Portepol, 1240 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Press A. Box 24, 608). In another MS. Lib. L. f. 136 b. containing an account of St. Pancras, 1252, "item sunt in parochia xxxvj mesuagia, exceptis messuagiis Tothale, Ruggemere, et Northbury et Alkichesbury." In any case it would seem to be outside the City boundary.

Alhalwenestrete Tenement in parish of All Hallows the Less, formerly John de Weston's and afterwards Alice de Perere's in the street called "Alhalwenestrete," the litel under the lofte, between the new tower lately the said Alice's on one side, and the house lately Lambert Goldsmyth's on the other, which tenement is in the king's hands, 3 Rich. II. 1379 (Cal. P.R. Rich. II. 1377-81, p.376).

From its designation, it seems probable that this street was in close proximity to the church of All Hallows the Less and that it may therefore be identical with the lane known later as Cole Harbour (q.v.).

Alienation Office On the eastern side of King's Bench Walk in the Inner Temple (Horwood, 1799). An office under the Lord Chancellor. See Temple (The).

Alkichesbury See Alfrichburi.

All Hallows (le Mechele, the More).-See All Hallows the Great.

All Hallows (on the Hay, over Heywharf) See All Hallows the Great.

All Hallows ad Fenum See All Hallows the Great.

All Hallows Barking On the north side of Great Tower Street at the south-east corner of Seething Lane. In Tower Ward.

Earliest mention found in records : " Berkinchechirche," 13 Stephen (Reg. Roffense, p.117).

Other forms : " Berchinge-chirche," temp. H. II. (ib. 45). " Ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum de Berkingecherche," H.111. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1628). " Berkyngcherche," 4 Ed. I. 1275-6 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 258). " Berkinkecherche," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I.21).

" All Hallows called Berckinges-church," 1285 (ib. 71). " Eccl. Omnium Sanctorum de Berkyngchirche," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I.230). "Parish of St. Mary de Berkyngcherch," 1349 (Ct. H.W. I.612). " Berkynggecherche parish towards the Tower" (Anc. Deeds, A. 1925). "All Saints, Tower Street," 6 H. V. (Anc. Deeds, C. 1295). "All Hallows de Berkyng," 1433 (Ct. H.W. II.467). " All Souls Barking," 1502 (Lond. I. p.m. I.48).

A chapel called " Berkyngchapel," erected by Richard I, adjoined the churchyard, and the north chancel aisle of the church is said to have been erected afterwards on a portion of this site (Maskell, 14).

Church restored and a College of Priests founded, temp. Ric. III. Suppressed 1548.

The curfew was to be sounded here every night, 44 Ed. III. (Cal. L. Bk. G. p.270).

Church again restored 1613, 1634, and 1814.

Brick steeple erected 1659.

The church was not destroyed in the Great Fire, 1666, the dial and porch only being burnt. It was severely damaged in 1649 by an explosion of gunpowder, with the result that portions only of it retain their mediaeval character, these older portions being the pillars dividing the nave from the north and south aisles, the masonry of the east wall of the chancel and perhaps of the east window. But the tracery of the window has been renewed. The western end of the church was the most severely damaged (L. and Midd. Arch. Soc. II. 126-7).

Registers commence 1558.

A perpetual Vicarage. Patrons : The advowson of the church was given by private owners Riculphus and Brichtwen in the time of Stephen to the See of Rochester (Reg. Roff. p.117). By 31 Ed. I. it had passed into the hands of the" monialium de Berkynge" (Lib. Cust. I. 235). At the suppression of the monasteries it was given by Henry VIII. to the See of Canterbury, 37 H. VIII., in whose possession it has since remained (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. II.127).

Name : Dedication to All Hallows and the Blessed Virgin Mary (Newcourt, I. p.239). An example of a double dedication. See Church Dedications.

It is suggested that the name Barking was added to the dedication because of the connection of the church with the Abbey of Barking to distinguish it from the other churches in London also dedicated to All Hallows (Newcourt, I.239). But if so, it must have belonged to the Abbey before the grant of the advowson in the time of Stephen to the See of Rochester, as it is described in that grant as "Berkinchechirche" (Reg. Roff. p.117).

See Mary (St.) de Berkyngcherch, Chapel.

All Hallows Barking Churchyard On the north and east sides of the Church of All Hallows Barking (O.S.). Churchyard mentioned in Will of Thos. Pilk, who directed that be was to be buried there near the chapel of St. Mary de Berking, 1350-I (Ct. H.W. i. 645).

Formerly larger (S. 132). Ten feet on the south side thrown into Tower Street in 1862, and four feet on the north and east sides given for the widening of Barking Alley.

All Hallows Barking Vicarage Adjoined the church (Maskell, p.26). Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt (ib.).

Removed 1862 to widen the street (ib. 152).

All Hallows Colemanchurch Qy.= Katherine (St.) Colman and Colemanchurch (q.v.).

All the references to this church and parish are early in date. The earliest is temp. Rich. I. "Land in parish of All Hallows Colemanecherche" (Anc. Deeds, A. 2264-5), and the latest 1310 (ib. A. 2064).

Some land in the parish is described as adjoining land of the brethren of Mountjoy (Monte Jovis) east (Anc. Deeds, A. 7350), and in 1391 we find Montjeofysyn described as within the gate of Algate (Cal. P.R. Rich. 11.1388-92, p.417).

This record seems to place the parish within the Ward of Aldgate, and the present parish of St. Katherine Colman, and it must not be forgotten that Fenchurch (q.v.) was also known as "Colmanstrete."

It is worthy of note that in the list of London churches in the Liber Custumarum I. 230, 31 Ed. I. there is a church called " Omnium Sanctorum de Colmannechirche," while St. Katherine Colman is not mentioned, whereas in the list of patrons following (p.235), St. Katherine Colman is mentioned and not All Hallows. These omissions can certainly not be regarded as positive proofs of identity, but they may at least be looked upon as possible indications of it.

In the Holy Trinity Cartulary (MS. of Thos. de Axebrigge described under Holy Trinity Priory), mention is made of property in the parish of St. Katherine or All Saints Colmanchurch (Dugdale VI. 155), and the explanation would seem to be that the church had received a double dedication to St. Katherine and All Saints (See Stow, 151), and that in consequence the church and parish are sometimes referred to by one name 'and some-times by the other.

In later times the dedication to St. Katherine is exclusively made use of.

All Hallows de Stanningechirche See All Hallows Staining.

All Hallows Garschirch, Gracechurch, Grascherch, in Gracioustreete ¶See All Hallows, Lombard Street.

All Hallows in Parva Roperia Sir Edward de Kendale at his death granted to Sir William Croyser and others a cellar with one shop and houses built over one part of the cellar next the church of All Saints " in parva Roperia," the other part of the cellar being under the church, and also the reversion of one-third of the cellar now held in dower by his wife Elizabeth, 49 Ed. III. (Ch. I. p.m. [74]).

See All Hallows the Less.

All Hallows in St. Helen's " Alhaloyns in seynt Heleyns" in Byshoppis Gate Ward, mentioned in Fabyan's list of churches, 1516. Qy.= St. Helen's Bishopsgate, or a chapel in that church.

All Hallows in the Ropery See All Hallows the Great.

All Hallows Lane Tenements in All Hallows Lane in parish of All Hallows Barking given to the poor of that parish (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 36).

Not further identified. Probably adjoined the church.

All Hallows Lane South out of Upper Thames Street at No. 89 (P.O. Directory.) In Dowgate Ward.

Earliest mention in records : " Alhalloes Lane," 43 Eliz. (1601) (Lond. I. p.m. III. p. 303).

In this inquisition the lane is called " Alhalloes Lane, alias Hay Wharfe lane," but in O. and M. 1677, Heywharfe Lane is clearly shown by name east of All Hallows Lane, answering to Stow's description of Haywharfe Lane as at the east end of All Hallows the Great.

Stow calls the lane " Church Lane," and does not mention the name All Hallows Lane, so that this designation, as applied to the present street, appears to have come into use only about the 17th century (S. ed. 1598, 186).

Called " Great Allhallows Lane " in 1659 (End. Ch. Report, 1903, St. Martin Ludgate).

The western side was demolished about 1860-5 for the erection of Cannon Street Station.

Named after the church of All Hallows the Great.

Perhaps this lane is to be identified with the Ropary (q.v.).

All Hallows Lane Stairs At the south end of All Hallows Lane, Dowgate (Bacon, 1912). In Dowgate Ward.

Earliest mention : (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 207).

In Horwood 1799 called " All Hallows Stairs."

All Hallows le Grant See All Hallows the Great.

All Hallows Lombard Street Churchyard On the south side of the church (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1880).

All Hallows Passage West out of Gracechurch Street at No. 18 on the north side of All Hallows Church, Lombard Street. In Langbourn Ward.

In P.O. Directory it is called " Way to All Hallows Church."

First mention : " All Hallows Court " (Boyle, 1799). " All Hallows Passage " (Lockie, 1810 ; and Elmes, 1831).

All Hallows Pier South of All Hallows Lane Stairs in the Thames (O.S. 1875 ; and Bacon, 1912).

All Hallows Semannescyrce A Charter of Gilbert, Bishop of London, confirmed the church, " Omnium Sanctorum in London quae dicitur Semannesire," to the monks of Tewkesbury (Dugdale, II.71). " Quaedam ecclesia in Londonia quae vocatur' Semannes~ce' mentioned in charter of Henry I. 1100-1107, quoted in charter of Henry IV. (ib. p.66).

" Parochia omnium sanctorum Semanchirch," 1285 (D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. f. 93).

" In parrochia semanes-cherche " (ib. W.D. f. 12), 13th century.

The charter of Gilbert, Bishop of London, above mentioned, seems to suggest that this church may be identified with All Hallows the Great, for in 1248 in the Annals of Tewkesbury it is recorded that the monks laid claim to the advowson " de ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum Londoniae " as against Richard earl of Gloucester, and the suit being decided in his favour, this advowson passed subsequently with the other estates of the earldom of Gloucester to Hugh le Despencer the younger. In the list of patrons of London Churches in the Liber Cust. I. 238, Hugh is designated as the owner of the advows son of " Omnium Sanctorum ad Fenum," one of the distinctive appellations of All Hallow-the Great.

It is not unlikely that this name" Semannescyrce " would be given to All Hallows the Great, situated as it was near to the great port of Dowgate, and therefore easy of access to the seamen trading there.

All Hallows Staining On the west side of Mark Lane, where the Tower and churchyard still stand, entrance by a passage out of Fenchurch Street (O.S.). In Langbourne Ward. The parish extends into Tower and Aldgate Wards.

Earliest mention found in records : A deed of 1177 relating to land of Blanchesapeltuna is endorsed " Staniggecherch " (Anc. Deeds, A. 7295).

Names and forms of names : " Parish of Stanenechirche," c. 1170-87 (Anc. Deeds, A. 2406). "Ecelesiam de Staningehage," 1 Rich. I. (Cott. MS. Faust. B. II.). "Onmium Sanctorum de Stanene Chch. c. 1218 (Ducarel, St. Katherine's, p.108). "All Hallows de Staningecherch," 1280-1 (Ct. H.W. I. 51). " All Hallows de Stanyng," 1372 (ib. II. 146).

" Commonly called Stane Church as may be supposed for a difference from other " Churches of that name in this Citie, which of olde time were builded of timber, and " since were builded of stone " (S. 205).

Loftie suggests that the name may be derived from a certain holding in the City mentioned in Domesday Book, and in a charter of Edward the Confessor, as belonging to the manor of Staines (London, p. 164), and Kingsford that it was known as the " parochia de Stanenetha " (stone hithe), 1194 (Cart. de Colchester, 298) (ed. Stow, II. 308). But this is not a general form of the name.

Povah suggests 1140 as the date of the erection of the stone church, rendered desirable by the Fires of 1087 and 1136 (Annals, 317). Repaired 1630. Escaped the Fire 1666, but afterwards fell down 1671 and rebuilt about 1683. (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 158-9). Again fell down 1761 (Welch).

Church, except the tower, taken down 1870 and the parish united to St. Olave Hart Street. The tower is still standing and is in the Perpendicular style, over 400 years old. It was purchased, together with the site of the church, by the Company of Clothworkers from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners on the understanding that they would keep the tower in repair and would not build on the site, except on defined portions fronting Mark Lane (Povah, Annals of St. Olave, Hart Street, and All Hallows Staining, 317, 324).

A Rectory. Patrons : in 31 Ed. I., in private hands, J. de la Barre (Lib. Cust. I. 238). Afterwards belonged to the de Walthams and eventually was given by the Bishop of London to the Abbot and Convent of St. Mary Graces (Newcourt, I. 255-6). After the Dissolution, it remained in the hands of the Crown.

It is open to question whether the church and parish of " All Hallows Colemancherche " and " Colemancherche," which are treated as separate churches in the Nomina Beneficiorum (Lib. Cust. I. 230 et seq.), coalesced subsequently with the church of All Hallows Staining, or whether, as seems more probable, All Hallows Colemancherche is identical with St. Katherine Colman (q.v.).

All Hallows Staining School Founded 1669 by Wm. Winter's Will for the education and apprenticeship of 6 boys (Dodsley).

Boys now educated in the Aldgate Ward School (End. Ch. Rep. 1902).

All Hallows Stairs See All Hallows Lane Stairs.

All Hallows super Cellarium See All Hallows the Less.

All Hallows the Great On the east side of All Hallows Lane at the corner of Upper Thames Street. In Dowgate Ward (O.S. 1880).

Earliest mention found in records : " All Saints del Heywarf," 19 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1791).

Other names and forms : "All Hallows le grant," 1259 (Ct. H.W. I. 4). "All Hallows de la Heyswarwe," 1269 (ib. 10). " All Hallows at the Hay," 1271-2 (ib. II). " All Saints over Heywharf," temp. H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1707). "All Hallows at le Heywharf," 1283 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p.77). "Om scor sr heywarf" (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, 1285, ff. 115-118). " All Hallows at the Hay towards 'vicum regium cordariorum,' " 1291 (Ct. H.W. I. 99). "Omnium Sanctorum ad Fenum," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230). "Omnium Sanctorum majorem at le Heywharf," 8 Ed. II. (Ch. I. p.m. m. 60). " All Hallows the Great in la Corderie," 11 Ed. II. 1318 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 85). " All Hallows next to the street of the Corders," 1326 (Ct. H.W. I. 318). " All Hallows the Great in the Ropery," 1332 (Ct. H.W. I. 373). " All Hallows called ' le Mechele,' " 1379 (ib. II. 208). " Omnium Sanctorum magna in roperia," 46 Ed. III. (Ch. I. p.m. m. 62). " All Hallows the More in Thames Street," 1537 (Ct. H.W. 11. 643).

A large cloister on the south side (ib.).

Repaired and beautified and steeple repaired 1627-9 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 205). Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1683, All Hallows the Less being united to it. Arch. Sir C. Wren. Cost £5600 (ib. 207). Taken down 1876 to widen Upper Thames Street, and the tower removed to the south side. Reopened 1877. Finally removed 1893, and the parishes united to St. Michael Paternoster Royal and St. Martin Vintry (End. Ch. Rep. 1903, p. 10). The fine carved oak screen presented to the church by the Hanse merchants is now in St. Margaret Lothbury.

Site now covered by a brewery, the churchyard only remaining enclosed and undisturbed.

A Rectory, one of the thirteen peculiars belonging to the See of Canterbury.

The advowson of the church was in the hands of Sir Hugh le Despencer the younger, 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 238). From that family it passed first to the Beauchamps, then to the Nevilles, and was by them settled on Henry VII. and his heirs (Newcourt, I. 247). The advowson was given by H. VIII. in 1546 to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the later presentations were made by him.

Derivation of name : " Called Alhallowes the more in Thames streete for a difference from Alhallowes the lesse in the same street ; it is also called " ad fenum in the Ropery," because hay sold neare thereunto at hay wharfe and ropes of old time made and sold in the high street " (S. 236).

See All Hallows Semannescyrce.

All Hallows the Great Churchyard On the south side of Upper Thames Street. Enclosed and left " in situ " after the removal of the church (O. and M. 1677-O.S.).

All Hallows the Less On the south side of Thames Street, at the north-west corner of the street called Cole Harbour leading to the Thames, east of All Hallows the Great (Leake, 1666-O. and M. 1677). In Dowgate Ward. The parish extends into Bridge Ward Within.

Earliest mention found in records : Presentation of William son of Robert Hardel to the church of " All Hallows the Less (super Celarium)," 25 H. III.1240 (Cal. P.R. H. III. 1232-47, p. 240).

Other names and forms of name : " All Hallows upon the Cellar," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I. 25). " All Hallows le Petyt," 1298 (ib. 136). " Omnium Sanctorum super Cellarium," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230). " All Hallows super solar," 3 Ed. II. (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 292). " All Hallows the Less upon the Cellar," 1322 (Ct. H. Wills, I. 300). " All Hallows ye Lytle," 1347-8 (ib. I. 501). " All Hallows near le Roperie," 1349 (ib. 608). " All Hallows the Less in le Roperie," 1452 (Ct. H.W. II. 521). " All Hallows called ' super solarium,' " 1454-5 (ib. 527). " All Hallows the lesser in 'Thamysestreate,' " 11 Eliz. (L.C.C. deeds. Harben bequest, 1500-1600, No. 7).

Two messuages belonging to Cold Harbour were given by Philip St. Cleare towards the enlargement of the parish church and churchyard, 20 Rich. II. (S. 238). Repaired and beautified by the parishioners 1613-16. Galleries added 1633 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 206). Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt, the parish united to All Hallows the Great (ib. 207). The site is partly occupied by Calvert's brewery (H. Co. Mag. V. xiv. No. 54, p. 89).

A Rectory. In 31 Ed. I. the advowson belonged to the Bishopric of Winchester (Lib. Cust. I. 238), and in 1282 the king presented to the living on account of the voidance of the See of Winchester (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-92, p. 21). In 1336 the advowson was given to the master of the chapel built by John de Pulteneye in honour of Corpus Christi (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1334-8, p. 308). After the dissolution of the monasteries, temp. H. VIII. the advowson fell to the Crown, in whom it remained until 2 Jas. I., when it passed into private hands and eventually to the Bishop of Chichester, who gave the tithes to the Bishop of London in trust for the Rector of the Church (Wilson's St. Lawrence Pountney, p.71-2).

In 1893 with All Hallows the Great united to St. Martin Vintry.

Called the Less to distinguish it from All Hallows the Great, and called " on the cellars " because it standeth on the vaults. The Steeple and Quire stood on an arched gate, the entrance to Cold Harbour (S. 257).

Mention is made in early deeds of tenements under the church 1306 (Ct. H.W. I. 179) and 1347-8 (ib. 501).

See All Hallows in Parva Roperia.

All Hallows the Less Churchyard At the north-west corner of Cole Harbour, on the south side of Thames Street (O. and M. 1677-O.S.).

All Hallows Within the Gate of Bishopsgate ¶See All Hallows, London Wall.

All Hallows, Bread Street On the east side of Bread Street at the corner of Watling Street (O.S. 1875). In Bread Street Ward. The parish extends into Cordwainer Ward.

Earliest mention found in records : " All Hallows Bredstrete," I227 (Cal. Ch. Rolls, H. III.I.50).

Other forms : "All Hallows de Bredestrete," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I. 24). "Bredstrate church," 19 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1970). " All Hallows in Watling Street," 1464. (Rolls of Parlt. V. 544a). " Allhallowes in Watling Street," (Leake, 1666).

In 1349 a plot of land for the enlargement of the church was assigned to Nicholas de Rothewell, parson of the church; the plot was 12 ft. long and 27 ft. broad (Cal. P.R. Ed. 111.1348-50, p.295), and in 1350 another plot 40 ft. in length by 20 ft. in breadth adjoining the church, for a chapel to be built on it (ib. 479).

At one time the church had a stone steeple, struck by lightning 1559 and taken down to save the cost of repair (S. 348-9).

Repaired and beautified 1625. Burnt in the Fire 1666, but rebuilt 1680-4 by Sir C. Wren at a cost of over £3000, and the parish of St. John the Evangelist united to it (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 199).

Taken down 1876-7 by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and parish united to St. Mary le Bow. Warehouses erected on the site. John Milton was baptised in the church 1608, and a tablet has been fastened to the corner house erected on the site recording the fact.

A Rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury. Patrons : Prior and Chapter of Christ Church, Canterbury, and granted to the Archbishop in 1365 (Newcourt, I.244).

All Hallows, Cornhill A grant of land by Stephen the prior and the convent of Holy Trinity to John the goldsmith held of them by Walter the Goldsmith is endorsed "Omnium Sanctorum de Cornilla" (Anc. Deeds, A. 7288, and See Anc. Deeds, A. 2122).

Qy. =All Hallows, Lombard Street (q.v.).

All Hallows, Fenchurch First mention 1283-4 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p.80).

Forms of name: " All Hallows de Phanchurch," 1283-4 (ib.). "All Hallows de Fancherche," 1285 (Ct. H.W. I. 75). " All Hallows near Fancherch," 1289-90 (ib. 88). " Omnium Sanctorum de Fenchirche," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230 and 234). "All Saints Fanchurche" (L. and P. H. VIII. 1540, D.S. xvi. p.54).

Identified with St. Gabriel Fenchurch (q.v.).

All Hallows, Honey Lane In Honey Lane, at the north-west corner of Honey Lane Market (Leake, 1666). In Cripplegate Ward Within.

First mention in records : " All Hallows, Hunilane," 1235 (Cal. Ch. Rolls, I. 201-2).

Other forms : "All Hallows de Honilane," 1279 (Ct. H.W. I. 42). "All Hallows in Honylane," 1287 (ib. 81). " Parish of Honylane," 1297-8 (ib. 131).

Repaired and beautified 1625.

Burnt in the Fire 1666 and not rebuilt, the Market occupying the site of both church and parsonage house. Parish united to St. Mary le Bow. A Rectory. Patron : In private hands, and in 1399 in possession of T. Knoles, Grocer. Devised by his will dated 1435-1436, to his son Thomas (Ct. H.W. II. 476), and by the Will of Simon Strete grocer, dated 1456, the advowson of the church of All Hallows Hony lane is devised to the Grocers' Company, on condition that they observe the obit of Thomas, son of Thomas Knolles (ib. 540).

In the Parish Clerks' History it is said to be in the gift of the Bishop of London (p.13).

Saxon remains have been found on the site at various times since the removal of the church.

All Hallows, Lombard Street On the north side of Lombard Street at No.48, and west of Gracechurch Street (P.O. Directory). In Langbourne Ward. The parish is in Langbourne, Bishopsgate Within and Bridge Wards.

Earliest mention found in records : 1053.

" Brihtmaer gave at 'Gerschereche' to Xres chereche at Cantwarberi-alre Halgene chereche," after the death of his wife and children. Grant witnessed by Leofstan, portreeve, etc. (Thorpe, Dip. Ang.-Sax. p.372-3, transcribing MS. Reg. C.C. Cantuar, C. v. fol. 11b. and A. fol. 153b.).

Names and forms of names : "All Hallows towards Gars-chirch," Rich. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2124). "All Hallows Garschirch," temp. John (ib. A. 2215-I 6). "All Hallows Grascherch " (ib. A. 2228). " All Hallows de Gerschirch," 1278 (Ct. H.W. I. 36). "All Hallows in Lombardstrete," 1505 (ib. II. 610). " All Hallows in Lombardstreete," otherwise called " All Hallows in Gracioustreete," 1599-1600 (ib. 725).

Qy. called " All Hallows, Cornhill " and " Gracechurch " (q.v.). See Benet (St.) Gracechurch.

Lately new builded I494-John Warner built the south aisle. Robert Warner his son finished it 1516-Steeple or bell tower finished 1544. Stone porch from the dissolved priory of St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell (S. 203). Repaired and beautified 1622-3 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 155).

Burnt in the Fire ; rebuilt 1694 (ib.) by Wren at a cost of just over £8000. Again repaired and beautified 1847, 1870, and 1880.

Wood carving attributed to Grinling Gibbons.

Parishes of St. Benet, Gracechurch, St. Dionis Backchurch, and St. Leonard Eastcheap united to it.

A Rectory. One of the thirteen peculiars belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury in London. Patrons : Dean and Chapter of Canterbury.

" In Lombard Streete is one faire Parish church called Alhallowes Grasse church in Lombard streete, because the Grasse market went down that way " (S. 203).

All Hallows, London Wall On the north side of London Wall at No. 85 (P.O. Directory). In Broad Street Ward. Parish extends into Aldgate and Bishopsgate Within Wards.

Earliest mention found in records : Temp. H. I. (Strype, I ii. p. 5) included in grant to Holy Trinity of soke of Aldgate (See below).

" Omnium sanctorum super murum," 1241-59 (Register of Fulk Basset, Bishop of London, in D. and C. St. Paul's MSS. W.D. 9, fo. 48b).

It seems to have been described in various ways : " All Hallows by the Wall," 1285 (Ct. H.W. I. 73). " Omnium sanctorum de Bradstte," 1285 (D. and C. St. Paul's MS. liber. L. fo. 117a). " Omnium scor secus murum " (Ed. I.) (Anc. Deeds, A. 2012). " Omnium Sanctorum ad Murum," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230). " All Hallows near London Wall," 1313 (Ct. H.W. I.243). " All Hallows under the Wall " (ib. II. 33), 1361. " All Hallows atte Walle," 1388 (ib. 268). " All Hallows within the gate of Bishopesgate," 1344-5 (ib. I. 476). " All Hallows opposite the Augustine Friars," 1350-1 (ib. 645).

Chapel of Allhallows in the Church.

Church of St. Augustine Pappey incorporated with it 1441 (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1441-6, p. 3).

New aisle built 1528-9. Repaired 1613, 1627. Escaped the Fire. Taken down and rebuilt 1765. Arch. Dance. Patrons : Prior and Convent of Holy Trinity (Lib. Cust. I. 230).

Strype says that Maud, Queen of H. I. gave the church to the prior and convent of Holy Trinity (ed. 1720, I. ii. 5), and it was probably included in the grant of the soke of Aldgate, which she made to the Prior (Lansdowne MS. 448, p.9). Since the dissolution, in the hands of the Crown. A Rectory (Newcourt, I. 256). The portion of the parish in Aldgate Ward is detached and formed, prior to 1441, the parish of St. Augustine Papey.

There was a fraternity of Brewers connected with the church in 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 26), and a brotherhood of St. Sith (Churchwardens' Accounts, Welch, 1912).

"So called of standing close to the wal of the Citie" (S. 177).

Many interesting details relating to the church and parish are contained in the transcript of the Churchwardens' Accounts of the parish for '455 to 1536, edited by Charles Welch (Pub. L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans.), and not the least interesting are the particulars relating to the famous ankers or anchorites and the anker-hold connected with the church and parish which are so frequently referred to in early London records.

It has been found, in the course of recent excavations in 1905, that the church was built on the Wall of London, and that the foundations of the bastion here were used in the rebuilding of the circular vestry in the 18th century. This was exposed to view in 1905 by the removal of houses, and the excavations and discoveries made are set out in Arch. lx.

All Hallows, Tower Street See All Hallows Barking.

Allam Yard See Allum Yard.

Allen's Court North out of Leadenhall Street, east of St. Andrew Undershaft Church (Strype, ed. 1720-Boyle, 1799). In Aldgate Ward.

Named after Sir Thomas Allen, whose house occupied the court in Strype's time (ed. 1720, I. ii. 82).

The site seems now to be occupied by the Port of London Authority's office at 109 Leadenhall Street.

Allen's Court This was a small court leading south out of Harrow Alley, Middlesex Street, the third turning west from Middlesex Street. In Portsoken Ward (O.S. 1880).

Formerly called : " Allen's Rents " (Rocque, 1746). " Allen's Court " or " Rents" (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

It seems to be called " Suttons Rents " in Strype (ed. 1720, I. ii. 27).

The site is now covered by Artizan Street and the industrial dwellings erected there in1884.

Named after the owner or builder, according to Dodsley.

Allen's Rents See Allen's Court.

Alley Gate See Shaft Alley.

Alleyn's Almshouses In Gingerbread Court, Lamb Alley, Bishopsgate Street, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Dodsley, 1761-O.S. 1880).

Erected c. 1628, by Edward Alleyn, the comedian, in Petty France and removed to Lamb Alley when Petty France was rebuilt as New Broad Street. For ten poor men and women. Rebuilt 1733 in Gingerbread Court, Lamb Alley. Still standing in 1901, End. Ch. Rep. of that year.

Removed for the extension of the Great Eastern Railway lines.

Alleys Two passages called " alleys " in parish of St. Botolph Without Aldrychgate 3 and 4 Philip and Mary (Cal. L. and M. Ft. of Fines, II. 101).

See Aleye (la).

In the Burial Registers of St. Olave Hart Street, 1597-8, the words " ally," "allye," and "alley" are all used as the equivalent of our modern " aisle."

The word " alley" in the N.E.D. is derived from the O.F. " alee "= passage, walk.

It is defined as-

I. a walk, a passage,

II. a bordered walk or passage, as a walk in a garden, a passage between buildings, a narrow street, a lane. A long narrow enclosure for bowls. A passage between rows of pews, now called " aisles."

In M.E. it was spelt " allure "=a place to walk in, a gallery, a walk by the parapets of a castle, a cloister. Low Latin " alature" from " aler," to go.

The word occurs very frequently in early documents, and from the descriptions given the houses seem often to have been built out so as to project over these alleys or passages, which appertained to the owners or occupiers of the respective houses and were in no sense streets as they are to-day. The term "alley" was in use in its modern signification in Stow's time, but the original alleys were for the most part unnamed.

Alliance Assurance Co.'s Offices At the north-east corner of Bartholomew Lane (P.O. Directory). In Broad Street Ward. Founded 1824, on the site of part of Throgmorton Court (q.v.). Called Alliance Bank in O.S. 1880.

See Auction Mart Sale Rooms.

Allum Yard South out of Crutched Friars, west of Savage Gardens (O. and M. 1677).

Other names : " Alam," " Allam," Yard (Strype, 1720 and 1755). " Alarm Yard " (Boyle, 1799).

Site seems to have been rebuilt in Horwood.

Almhouse Yard North out of White's Alley, Coleman Street, in Coleman Street Ward (Strype, ed. 1720-Boyle, 1799).

It contained six houses for six poor men and their wives, belonging to the Company of Leathersellers (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 64).

See Ayre's Charity, Almshouses.

Almnes Lane House in parish of St. Leonard de Estchep in this lane devised by Reginald de Canefeld to Cristina his wife, 1322 (Ct. H.W. I. 295).

Not further identified.

Alms Alley In Harrow Alley, Petticoat Lane. In Portsoken Ward (Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Almshouses, Judd's Charity See Judd's Almshouses.

Almshouses, Mincing Lane In two alleys in Mincing Lane, given by Wm. Sevenoke to St. Dunstan's parish in the East (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 47).

The alleys were called Harp Alley and Lilley Alley in 1656, and consisted of 22 small tenements, while two other tenements in Mincing Lane made up the 24 tenements forming the almshouses. When the annuity was originally given by Wm. Sevenoak in 1426, the property consisted of three tenements in Mincing Lane, and these were subsequently acquired by the parish for the almshouses. After the removal of the two alleys, the almshouses were not rebuilt, but money payments were granted to the poor in place of the habitations pulled down (End. Ch. Rep. 1902).

Alnager Measurer of cloth by the " aulne " (Latin "ulna") or ell for the purpose of collecting the " aulnage " (or duty per ell) paid to the King on all cloths sold, 1315 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 53). Office abolished 11 and 12 Wm. III.

Alphage (St.) Churchyard On the north side of London Wall, opposite the present church of St. Alphage. Enclosed by iron railings, showing remains of the old Wall of London. In Cripplegate Ward Within. Shown in O. and M. 1677.

Alphage (St.) London Wall On the south side of London Wall at No. 13. In Cripplegate Ward Within.

The church stood originally on the north side, adjoining the Wall of London.

Earliest mention found in records : " St. Elfego," c. 1108-25 (Anc. Deeds, A. 7309).

The church is said to have been built prior to the charter of William I. to the foundation of St. Martin's le Grand in 1068, and to have been included in the gifts of churches, etc., mentioned therein. It is not mentioned by name in the charter.

Other forms : " St. Alfego," 1189-98 (Anc. Deeds, A. 7926). " St. Alphegi," 1189-98 (ib. A. 11,858). "Sce Aliphegi sone day," 1241-59 (Fulk Basset's Register in D. and C. St. Paul's MSS. W.D. fo. 49). " St. Elfegi beside Crepelgate," 1275 (Anc. Deeds, A. 11,859). " St. Alphege de Cripelgate," 1279-80 (Ct. H.W. I. 43). " St. Alfige within Cripelgate," 1283-4 (ib. 68). " St. AElphege de Wodestrate," 1291 (ib. 102). " St. Alphege near Crepelgate," 1304 (ib. 165). "Alphey within Crepilgate " (Arnold, 1500-21, p.247).

In 1328 mention is made in a will of the parish of " St. Alphage within Bisshopesgate " (Ct. H.W. I. 339). There does not appear ever to have been any other church in London dedicated to St. Alphage and the passage may probably refer to the church of St. Alphage within Cripplegate.

Stow tells us that at the suppression of the Priory of Elsing Spital, temp. H. VIII., part of the priory church on the south side of London Wall was converted into a parish church for St. Alphage and the old parish church, which stood on the north side near the wall of the City by Cripplegate, being ruinous was pulled down and the plot made a carpenter's yard. The old churchyard, containing remains of the old Wall of London, is enclosed by an iron railing on the north side of London Wall Street.

Repaired 1624 and again 1682, 1701 and 1774-7. It was one of the few churches that escaped the Fire of London, 1666. North porch erected 1914.

A Rectory. Patrons : Dean of St. Martin's le Grand (Lib. Cust. I. 235), until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, when the patronage fell to the Crown and was given by Queen Mary to the Bishop of London (Newcourt, I. 259).

St. Alphage, to whom the church is dedicated, was Archbishop of Canterbury, and died 1012. He was buried in St. Paul's, but removed to Canterbury 1023.

The tower is fourteenth-century work of the old church of Elsing Spital, and it contains a fine doorway and arch.

It is proposed to unite this parish to St. Mary Aldermanbury.

Alphege (St.) Within Bishopsgate See Alphage (St.) London Wall.

Alphey Within Crepilgate See Alphage (St.), London Wall.

Alsies Lane See Alfies Lane.

Alulph (St.) See Olave (St.), Hart Street.

Amand (St.) St. Vedast, Foster Lane, is sometimes referred to as SS. Vedast and Amand. See Vedast (St.), Foster Lane.

Amandus (St.) See Vedast (St.), Foster Lane.

Ambrose Thurstan's Key Made a general place for lading and discharging goods by Act of Parliament, 1559 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 49).

No further reference.

Amelia Place South-west out of Seven Step Alley between Hutchison's Avenue and Gun Square, Houndsditch. In Portsoken Ward (O.S. 1848-51-O.S. 1880).

In the earlier edition the southern portion of the square is called by another name, which looks like " Berners Place," but is nearly obliterated. Removed for the extension of the Metropolitan Railway, c. 1884.

Perhaps named after the consort of William IV.

Amen Corner West out of Paternoster Row at No. 36 to Amen Court (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : (O. and M. 1677).

Former name : " Amen lane " (S. 315).

The college of Physicians was in the lane before the Fire, but was burnt down, and a Canon's house erected in its place (Strype, ed.1720, I. iii. 194).

Formerly comprised what is now known as Amen Court, containing the Canon's houses, etc.

Amen Court West and north from Amen Corner and west out of Warwick Lane at No.12. In Farringdon Ward Within (P.O. Directory).

It is shut in from the adjacent streets by a high wall and contains the houses belonging to the Canons and some other officials of St. Paul's Cathedral.

First mention : O.S. 1875.

Formerly called " Amen Corner " (q.v.) (O. and M. 1677). In Rocque, 1746 : " Resident of St. Paul's Houses."

Name said to be taken from the text illuminators living near the Cathedral (N. and Q. 9th S. IV. p. 134).

It has been suggested that this name together with Paternoster Row, Ave Maria Lane and Creed Lane mark stages in the processions of the Cathedral clergy-the Lord's Prayer in Latin being said in Paternoster Row, the Amen at the corner, which was at the bottom of the Row, the " Hail Mary " in Ave Maria Lane, while crossing Ludgate, the chanting of the Credo took place (N. and Q. 9th S. IV. pp. 190-1).

Amen House Mentioned 1641 (L. and P. Chas. I. XVIII. p. 164).

Not further identified.

Amen Lane Added to Creed Lane, betwixt the south end of Warwicke Lane and the north end of Ave Mary Lane (S. 340).

See Amen Corner.

America Square On the south side of John Street, Minories. In Portsoken Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

A brew house stood on the site in 1746 and 1763 in Rocque's maps. The Square must have been erected between 1761 and 1774, as a letter written to Lord Dartmouth in August, 1774, is dated from this square (H. MSS. Com. 14, Rep. 223).

Behind the south-west corner of America Square below the natural gravel was found a Roman wall, 7 ft. 6 in. thick, parallel to the line of the Minories (Arch. XL. 296). The base of the wall was at a depth of about 20 feet. Traces of the City Ditch have also been found here.

Amicable Assurance Society In Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street.

Incorporated 1706, as an Assurance office (Dodsley, 1761). The Society purchased the Hall from the Serjeants.

Anabaptist Meeting House See Pinners' Hall.

Anabaptist Meeting House On the east side of Maidenhead Court, north of Great Eastcheap. In Candlewick Ward (Rocque, 1746).

¶The site was cleared in the early part of the 19th century for the enlargement of the roadway.

Ancelyne (St.) See Antholin (St.), Budge Row.

Anchor (The) A house so called near Aldermanbury given to the parish of St. Olave Jewry (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 57). Not further identified.

Anchor Alley South out of Upper Thames Street at No. 68 to Three Cranes, on the west side of Vintners' Hall (P.O. Directory). In Vintry Ward.

First mention : London Guide, 1758.

Former names : " Anchor Street," (Rocque, 1746). " Anchor Lane " (S. 243-Strype,1755). " Palmeres Lane," 1439 and 1448 (Ct. H.W. II. 487 and 516; and S. 243). Plumbers Hall in the lane (S. 243).

The lane seems to have been called " Cressyngham lane " (q.v.) in 1437.

Named after the sign (Dodsley, 1761).

The earlier designations " Palmeres Lane " and " Cressyngham Lane " must have denoted the names of respective owners.

Anchor and Harp Alley, Aldgate High Street See Anchor and Hart Alley.

Anchor and Hart Alley North out of Aldgate High Street, near the eastern boundary of Portsoken Ward and within the ward. "Anchor and Hart Alley" (O. and M. 1677). "Anchor and Harp Alley" (Strype, 1720 and 1755).

Site rebuilt and seems now covered by Nos. 36 and 38 Aldgate High Street.

Name derived from the sign, or perhaps from the union of two signs.

Anchor Inn On the west side of Duck Lane, in Aldersgate Ward (Rocque, 1746-L. Guide, 1758).

The site is now occupied by some of the buildings belonging to St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Anchor Lane, Castle Baynard Ward See Anchor Wharf.

Anchor Lane, Street, Vintry Ward See Anchor Alley.

Anchor Wharf South out of Upper Thames Street at No.9 to the Thames, in Castle Baynard Ward, between Crown and Horseshoe Wharf and Horseshoe Wharf (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Lockie, 1816.

Former names : " Anderson's Wharf " (Horwood, 1799). " Timber Wharf " (Rocque, 1746).

In O. and M. 1677 the site is occupied by Baynard's Castle (q.v.), and See Baynard's Castle Wharf.

Wheatley says it was formerly called Anchor Lane, and this may have been the new street mentioned in the Deed of 1680. See Baynard's Castle Wharf.

See also Anchor Alley.

Anchorites Bequest to the Anchorite at the church of St. Peter de Cornhulle and to every other Anchorite in London, in will of Henry de Causton, 1350 (Ct. H.W. I. 638).

Richard de Elmham, Canon of St. Martin's le Grand bequeathed to every anchorite in London a penny, 1228 (Arch. Journal, XXIV. 341).

These bequests are typical of many made by the London citizens to the various anchorites and anchoresses in London, recorded in the Ct. of Hustings Wills, etc.

These Anchorites formed a very numerous body throughout the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, and were held in high honour on account of the austerity and devotion of their lives.

The "Ancren Riwle," an English treatise of the 13th century, gives the most elaborate rules for the conduct of an anchoress and throws much light on their mode of life.

There is an interesting account of the Anchorites of London in the Churchwardens' Accounts of the parish of All Hallows, London Wall, by Charles Welch, published by the London and Middlesex Archeological Society.

See Ancris, Anchoress.

Ancris, Anchoress, by Bishopsgate An Ancris (Anchoress) by Bishopsgate received 40s. the year of the Sheriffs of London (S. 165).

See Anchorites.

Anderson's Wharf South out of Upper Thames Street to the Thames, west of Copper Wharf (Horwood, 1799).

See Horseshoe Wharf and Anchor Wharf.

Andoverseld In parish of St. John de Walebrok, 1277-8. Devised by Edward le Blund to his son John by the name of the " whole seld of Andover " (Ct. of Hust. W. I. 30).

Devised by Sir John le Blund to his son Edward, 1312-13 (ib. 236).

Granted to Simon Corpe, 9 Ed. II. by the name of " Andovrefeld " (Anc. Deeds, C. 586).

In the last reference the " f " is probably an error in transcription in the Calendar for " s." See Selds.

Andrew (St.) In Edgar's Charter to Westminster dated 951, setting out the boundaries, occurs the following description : " to thaere ealde stoccene sce Andreas cyricean " on the " wide herestraet " (Kemble, Birch).

It seems probable that the church referred to as forming part of the eastern boundary, is St. Andrew Holborn, though possibly on a different site. The words of the charter imply that there was another and newer stone church of St. Andrew existing at the time, or it may be so described merely to distinguish it from the other churches of the same dedication in the City.

Andrew (St.) ad Sanctam Trinitatem Early grants (12th cent.) of land and dwellings in the parish of St. Andrew made by the Prior and Convent of Holy Trinity. Endorsed " Sancti Andree ad Sanctam Trinitatem " (Anc. Deeds, A. 2338, 7284, 7285).

Qy. = St. Andrew Undershaft.

Andrew (St.) Aneknappe See Andrew (St.) Undershaft.

Andrew (St.) Apud Turrim Qy.=Andrew (St.) Hubbard.

Andrew (St.) by Aldgate Apparently St. Andrew Undershaft (q.v.).

Andrew (St.) by the Wardrobe On the east side of St. Andrew's Hill at No.35, on. the north side of Queen Victoria Street (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward.

First mention : " Sci andree de Castello," c. 1244 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's W.D. 9 f. 48b).

Other names : " St. Andrew in the ward of Castle Baynard," 1275 (Riley's Mem. 4) " St. Andrew at Castle Baynard," 1279-80 (Ct. H.W. I. 46). " St. Andrew Castle Baynard," 1284 (ib. 69). " Sancti Andreae de Castro Baynardi," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I 228). " St. Andrew Baynard," 1307 (Ct. H.W. I. 191). " St. Andrew near Castle Baynard," 1344 (ib. 473). " St. Andrew in or near the Great Wardropp," 1656 (Ct. H.W. II. 771). "St. Andrew in le Wardroppe," 1585-7 (Lond. I. p.m. II. 125).

Repaired and beautified 1627 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 223).

Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1692, the parish of St. Ann Blackfriars being united to it. A Rectory. Patron : Robert Fitz Walter in 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 237). Afterwards in private hands. Later vested in the Crown, afterwards in the Mercers' Company, who present alternately with the parishioners of St. Ann's.

Designation indicates its locality.

Andrew (St.) Castle Baynard ¶See Andrew (St.) by the Wardrobe.

Andrew (St.) Eastcheap See Andrew (St.) Hubbard.

Andrew (St.) Holborn On the south side of Holborn Viaduct at No. 31 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

First mention : " St. Andrew Holburnestrate," 12th century (Anc. Deeds, B. 2197).

The church of St. Andrew (q.v.) is mentioned in Charter of King Edgar, 951, and most probably refers to St. Andrew, Holborn.

Other names and forms : " S. Andrew de Holeburn," 1291 (Ct. H.W. I. 103). " S. Andrew the Apostle in Portepul," 2 Ed. III. (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's Press A, Box 2a, 604). " S. Andrew in Holebourn," 1349 (Ct. H.W. I. 574).

There was a fraternity of St. Sith's in the church (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 248).

Repaired 1632. Rebuilt lately, 1676, by Sir C. Wren (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 248). Repaired 1851 and 1872.

A free school attached to it.

A Rectory. Patrons : Prior and convent of Bermondsey until the dissolution of the monasteries-afterwards in private hands ; Duke of Montague (P.C. 1732) and now the Duke of Buccleugh.

A spring existed under the wall of the churchyard temp. H. VIII. and in 1783 (Gent. Mag. Lib. XVI. p. 205).

Andrew (St.) Holborn Churchyard On the north, south, and west sides of the church (Horwood, 1799).

Shown also in O. and M. 1677 and in Strype on the east side of Shoe Lane, south-east of the church.

Andrew (St.) Hubbard On the south side of Eastcheap at the north-west corner of Love Lane. In Billingsgate Ward (S. 211). The parish extends into Langbourn Ward (O.S.).

First mention found in records : " St. Andrew by Estchepe," 3 John (Anc. Deeds, A. 2119).

Other forms : " St. Andrew Huberd," 1282 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 51). " St. Andrew de Estchep," 1286-7 (Ct. H.W. I. 80). " S. Andrew Hubert towards the Tower," 1285 (ib. 70). " S. Andrew Hubert in Estchep," 1294-5 (ib. 117). " S. Andrew Hubert near Estchepe," 1388 (ib. II. 268). Seems to be referred to as " St. Andrew apud Turrim," 13th century (MS. D. and C. St Paul's, W.D. 12).

These forms were used interchangeably down to the 16th century. Repaired and beautified 1630. Destroyed in the Fire and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Mary at Hill and the site disposed of for public uses, being partly laid into the street and partly occupied by the King's Weigh House (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 171).

A Rectory. Patron : Aymer de Valence, e. of Pembroke, 31 Ed. I and 17 Ed. II. (Lib. Cust. I. 238 and Inq. p.m. 17 Ed. II.). Afterwards the advowson was in the hands of John, Lord Hastings, earl of Pembroke, and after being for some time vested in the Crown, passed into the hands of John, Lord Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury (Newcourt, I. 263 ; and Arnold's Chronicle, 248). It continued in his family until 1598, but it is uncertain who made the presentations after this date, and Hatton says the matter was in dispute in 1708 between the Dukes of Norfolk and Somerset. Elmes says it was (in 1831) in the hands of the Duke of Northumberland, who presents alternately with the parishioners of St. Mary at Hill, and Wheatley accepts this statement.

It has been suggested that the church was erected on a Roman edifice, because when the foundations were brought to light the walls had the character of Roman workmanship and fragments of Samian pottery were found about the foundations (Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. p.42). Stow calls the church " Saint Andrew Hubbert," or Saint Andrew in East Cheape (p.211).

The most usual designation at the commencement of the 13th century was " St. Andrew by Estchepe," and it seems most likely that the appellation " Hubert " was added towards the end of that century in commemoration of some benefactor to the church.

Andrew (St.) Hubbard Lane The name of the lane occurs several times in the 13th and 14th centuries.

" Lane of St. Andrews Hubard," 19 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1970). " Tenement in St. Andrew Huberdlane," in parish of St. Dionisius de Grascherch, 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 62). Called in records " St. Andrewys Lane" in parish of St. Dionisii (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 154). " Seynt Andrewes lane," 1378 (Ct. H.W. II. 200). " Lane of St. Andrew Huberd, otherwise styled Philpot Lane " in the parish of St. Dionis Bakchurche, 20 Ed. IV. (Anc. Deeds, C. 6563). See Philpot Lane.

Qy. called " Brandrees lane " (q.v.) in a will of 1321, " Br " being probably an error for " St."

Andrew (St.) Next Christ's Church A messuage in this parish called " the Crane " and afterwards " the Greyhound." 1 Eliz. (Lond. I. p.m. I. 181).

The parish so described seems to be St. Andrew Undershaft.

See Greyhound Alley.

Andrew (St.) super Cornhill See Andrew (St.) Undershaft.

Andrew (St.) Undershaft At the south-east corner of St. Mary Axe in Aldgate Ward.

Earliest mention found in records : " St. Andrew ad Sanctam Trinitatem " (q.v.) 12th century (Anc. Deeds, A. 2338, 7284-5).

Other forms : " St. Andrew juxta Alegate," 52 H. III. (Ch. Inq. p.m.). " St. Andrew towards Alegate," 1285 (Ct. H.W. I. 72). " St. Andrew on the way to Alegate," 1289 (H. MSS. Com. 9 Rep. p. 3). "Sancti Andrae super Cornhulle," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 228). " St. Andrew Aneknappe," 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 30). " St. Andrew atte Knappe on Cornhill," 37 Ed. III. (Cal. P.R. Ed. III.1361-4, p. 437). " Seint Andrewe atte the Shafte vppon Cornhill," 1477 (Jupp. Carp. Co. p. 26). " St, Andrew atte Shafte upon Cornhull," 1482 (Ct. H.W. II. 583). " St. Andrew beside Christ's Church," 35 H. VIII (L. and P. H. VIII. XVIII. (1) p. 530). " St. Andrewe Vndershafte, Algate Ward, 1516 (Fabyan's Chr. p.295). " St. Andrew super Cornhull " was the most general designation during the 14th century.

A considerable portion of the church was rebuilt by Stephen Gennings, Mayor, in 1520-32 (S. 112) in the Perpendicular style of Gothic. It was restored again in 1627 and again in 1684, having escaped the Great Fire, also in 1704 (Strype, ed. 1720, ii. 66), about 1831, and in 1875-6. Monument in the church to John Stow, the antiquary.

A Rectory. Patron : the Bishop of London.

Parish of St. Mary Axe united to it, temp. Elizabeth (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 72-3).

Derivation of name : Stow speaks of it as " the faire and beautifull Parish church of " S. Andrew the Apostle with an addition, to be knowne from other churches of that name, " of the Knape or Undershaft, because that of old time everie yeare on May day in the " morning it was used, that an high or long shaft or Maypole was set up there, in the " midst of the streete before the south doore of the sayd church, which shaft when it " was set on ende, and fixed in the ground, was higher than the Church steeple " (S. 145).

Though by the statement that the shaft when set up was higher than the church steeple, Stow seems to imply that this circumstance gave rise to the name of Undershaft, yet is it not probable that the true origin of the name is to be found in the Knape or Undershaft, which our author mentions without, it would seem, understanding it, and which is wholly ignored by the current explanation above mentioned? What this was is not explained, but the word Knape is obviously derived from the A.S. Cnaep which Bosworth defines as a top, cap, knop or button, and Skeat as " the top of a small hill." It seems not unlikely that there was a hillock or artificial knob in the middle of the street opposite the church containing a socket in which the shaft was set up and that this protuberance went by the name of the Knape or Undershaft. It seems more probable that the church would take its name from a permanent object in its immediate neighbourhood rather than from a maypole set up once a year. Moreover the name of a neighbouring object is constantly applied adjectively to city churches and the addition Undershaft as just explained would be quite in accordance with practice. It must be remembered that the practice of setting up the shaft had ceased before Stow was born, namely by the 3 Ed. VI. when the shaft was sawn in pieces, and the story of the shaft having been higher than the steeple may not improbably have been invented to account for the name, the true origin of which may have been long forgotten.

The earliest instances of the use of the name give the forms " atte Knappe," " Ane knappe," in 1361 and 1363, and it is not until more than a century later that the forms " atte the Shafte " and " atte Shafte " occur.

Andrew (St.) Undershaft Churchyard North and east of the church, with a passage south to Leadenhall Street (O. and M. 1677-Horwood, 1799).

Andrew Cross Alley Adjoining the church of St. Andrew Holborn on the west and called with other premises the " Church Land," 1573 (End. Ch. Rep. 1898, p. 4).

Not named in the maps.

Name derived from the Inn of this name in Chancery Lane.

Andrewcrosse (Le) Mansion house of William Andrewe so called in parish of St. Sepulchre without Newgate, 1456 (Ct. H.W. II. 529). In Farringdon Ward Without.

Not further identified.

Andrewes Crosse Inn A messuage or inn so called in Chanceller Lane (Chancery Lane) in parish of St. Dunstan, between the Cage north, Fyckettes Felde west and the highway east, 35 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. xix. (1)).

Described as a messuage and 18 tenements called the " Andrewe Crose," 1 Ed. VI. (Lond. I. p.m. I. 90). In Farringdon Ward. Without.

See Crown Court, Chancery Lane.

Andrew's (St.) Court, Holborn South out of Holborn, with a passage east into St Andrew Holborn Churchyard, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1848-50).

Formerly called " Crookbourn Alley" (Tallis).

Removed for the formation of Holborn Circus and St. Andrew Street, 1870-8.

Named after the church.

Andrew's (St.) Court, Temple Street West out of Glasshouse Alley, Temple Street in Farringdon Ward Without (O.S. 1875).

First mention : Lockie, 1810.

Lockie describes it as forming part of Ashentree Court (q.v.).

Andrews (St.) Cross on the Hoop A tenement and garden so called in Fleet Street in parish of St. Dunstan between the tenement of the Prior and Convent of Royston called the " key on the Hopp " east and the tenements of the Carmelites west (Strype, ed. 1720, 1. iii. 257).

Not further identified.

Andrew's (St.) Hill South out of Carter Lane at No.59 to 148 Queen Victoria Street (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : Leake, 1666.

Other name : " Puddle Dock Hill " (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

Renamed after church of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe.

Andrew's (St.) Lane See Andrew (St.) Hubbard Lane.

Andrew's (St.) Street South-east out of Holborn Circus at No. 1 to Shoe Lane (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

Made 1870-8. Occupies the site of St. Andrew's Court, Holborn.

Andrew's (St.) Wharf South out of Upper Thames Street at No.4 to the Thames (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward.

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

In Rocque the site is occupied by " Old Pipe Yard " and " Lime Wharfe," in O. and M. by " Queen's College Yard " (q.v.).

Andro Morris Key Appointed a general place for lading and discharging goods by Act of Parliament, 1559 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 49).

¶Not further identified.

Angel (The) Langbourn Ward extends along Lombard Street to the sign of the Angell almost to the corner by the Stockes market (S. 205).

No later reference.

This popular sign was originally adopted in commemoration of the Salutation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the angel was represented with the scroll in his hands, containing the words, " Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum."

Angel Alley West out of Bishopsgate in Bishopsgate Ward Without between Nos. 137 and 138 (O. and M. 1677-to O.S. 1880). During the 17th and 18th centuries and part of the 19th century the street extended from Long Alley to Bishopsgate Street Without, but in the middle of the 19th century it suffered considerable curtailment owing to railway construction and the formation of Broad Street Station, the eastern end only, formerly called Angel Square (q.v.) being left. This end was swallowed up about 18 years ago in the extension of Liverpool Street Station, so that the alley has ceased to exist. It is suggested that the Angel Inn stood here, where the Parish Clerks had their first Hall (N. and Q. 11th S. III. p. 2 and 3).

Probably most of the courts and alleys, etc., designated by this name derive their names from a sign in the locality.

Angel Alley West out of Little Moorfields, leading to Moor Lane (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1848-5I). In Cripplegate Ward Without.

Removed c. 1865 for the erection of Moorgate Street Station and the formation of the Metropolitan Railway lines.

Angel Alley South out of Thames Street, between White Cock Alley and Red Bull Alley. In Dowgate Ward (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

Site now covered by Red Bull Wharf (q.v.).

Angel Alley In Shoe Lane. In Farringdon Ward Without (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Site not located, the alley not being named on the maps. Possibly=Angel Court, Shoe Lane (q.v.).

Angel Alley East out of Whitecross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Angel Alley South out of London Wall, against Old Bethl'em, a passage to Coleman Street Ward (Hatton, 1708-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Angel Alley, Aldersgate Street See Edmund Place.

Angel Alley, Golden Lane See Angel Court.

Angel Alley, Houndsditch. -North-east out of Houndsditch to Gravel Lane (Strype, 1720-Boyle, 1799). In Portsoken Ward.

Subsequently rebuilt, smaller, not extending to Gravel Lane.

Seems to have been on or near the site of " Cole's Yard " (q.v.).

Converted into warehouses known now as 126 Houndsditch

Angel Alley, London Wall See Leathersellers' Buildings.

Angel Alley, Nightingale Lane West out of Nightingale Lane at No.22 to Sun Yard, the third turning on the right from Upper East Smithfield (P.C. 1732-Greenwood, 1827). (In East Smithfield and not in present Portsoken Ward.)

Site occupied by the St. Katherine's Docks and the adjacent warehouses, commenced 1827.

Angel Alley, St. Martin le Grand See Angel Street.

Angel Alley, Stoney Lane North out of Stoney Lane, west of Angel Court. In Portsoken Ward (Strype, ed. 1720).

Removed for erection of City of London Artizan's Dwellings, commenced 1884.

Angel Alley, Upper Thames Street See Angel Passage.

Angel and Sugar Loaf Yard In the Minories (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Named after a house there with that sign (Dodsley, 1761).

Angel and Three Crowns, (The) -In St. Paul's Churchyard, 1673 (L. and P. Chas. II. XIV.).

No later reference.

Angel Court East out of Milton Street in Cripplegate Ward Without (Rocque, 1746 to O.S. 1880).

At No.68 in Lockie, 1810.

Rebuilt for business purposes.

Angel Court South out of Leadenhall Street, west of Hartshorn Court (P.C. 1732-Elmes, 1831). In Aldgate Ward.

Site rebuilt in the 19th century for offices and chambers.

Angel Court West out of Little Old Bailey in Farringdon Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799).

Former name : " Little Green Arbour Court " (O. and M. 1677-P.C. 1732).

Site now covered by Holborn Viaduct Station and offices.

Angel Court East out of Red Cross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (O. and M. 1677).

Removed for the formation of the Metropolitan Railway, c. 1865.

Angel Court East out of Bishopsgate. In Bishopsgate Ward Within (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

About 1760 a passage 25 ft. wide was made through Angel Court, into Little St. Helen's in accordance with the Act of Parliament passed to provide for openings being made in the City (Gent. Mag. Lib. London, XV. p. 227).

The site seems to have been rebuilt towards the end of the 18th century.

Angel Court North out of Lamb Alley. In Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype, 1720, I. ii. 108-Boyle, 1799).

The site is now occupied by the railway lines of the North London and Great Eastern Railways.

See Kingsdown Place.

Angel Court South out of Snow Hill, opposite St. Sepulchre's Church (O. and M. 1677-Elmes, 1831). In Farringdon Ward Without. In O. and M. 1677, Sir Thomas Davis' house occupies the western end ; in Rocque, a Fire Office and Three Horseshoe Court.

Removed for the formation of Holborn Viaduct (q.v.).

Angel Court In Little Elbow Lane, in Vintry Ward (P.C. 1732-London Guide, 1758).

Not named in the maps.

Angel Court East out of Shoe Lane, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

There was also an Angel Alley in Shoe Lane (q.v.).

Angel Court West out of Friday Street, at No. 8, in Bread Street Ward (P.O. Directory).

¶First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Angel Court, Golden Lane East out of Golden Lane near the northern boundary of The City (Lockie, 1810 ; Elmes, 1831). In Cripplegate Ward Without.

Former name : " Angel Alley " (Strype, ed. 1720, to Boyle, 1799).

Angel Court, Hart Street See New London Street.

Angel Court, Minories (1).-West out of the Minories to Vine Street. (Rocque, 1746.) In Portsoken Ward.

Formerly called: " Eeles Yard or Court " (O. and M. 1677-P.C. 1732).

Removed for the formation of John Street (q.v.).

Angel Court, Minories (2).-West out of Minories (O. and M. 1677). In Portsoken Ward.

Removed for formation of Vine Street (q.v.).

Perhaps the name was transferred after this date to the court so named further south which had been formerly called " Eeles Yard or Court."

Angel Court, Stoney Lane North out of Stoney Lane, the third turning west from Middlesex Street (Rocque, 1746). In Portsoken Ward.

Removed for the erection of the City of London Artizans' Dwellings, 1884.

Angel Court, Throgmorton Street North out of Throgmorton Street at No. 34a (P.O. Directory).

It leads to Copthall Court and is in Broad Street and Coleman Street Wards.

First mention : O. and M. 1677. Spelt " Angell Court " (Horwood, 1799).

Strype describes it as in his time the habitation of merchants and people of repute (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 132).

Angel Inn On the west side of Fleet Market at No.53. In Farringdon Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831).

The site was vacant in O.S. but is now covered by Plumtree Court, Shoe Lane.

Angel Inn East out of Aldersgate Street, in Aldersgate Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-L. Guide, 1758).

The site is now occupied by offices and business houses.

Angel Inn North out of Angel Street and east out of Butcher Hall Lane. In Farringdon Ward Within (Rocque, 1746-Horwood, 1799).

Site now occupied by the Parcels' Office, Great Northern Railway.

Angel Passage ,-South out of Upper Thames Street at No.95, adjoining Dyers' Hall and leading to Dyers' Hall Wharf (P.O. Directory). In Dowgate Ward.

First mention : Lockie, 1810.

Former names : " Angel Alley," Horwood, 1799. " White Cock Alley " (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

In O. and M. " Angel Alley " is the next lane further west, now Red Bull Wharf.

A tradesman's token commemorates this Alley in Thames Street in 1668 (Burn, p.12).

Angel Passage, Skinner Street See Angel Place.

Angel Place South out of Skinner Street to Angel Alley. In Bishopsgate Ward Without (O.S. 1848-51).

Former names : " Angel Passage " (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831). " Goats' Head Alley," extending south from Angel Alley (Rocque, 1745-Boyle, 1799).

Site now occupied by the lines of the North London and Great Eastern Railways.

Angel Square South out of Angel Alley, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Horwood, 1799-Lockie, 1816).

" Angel Alley " (q.v.) occupies the whole site in O.S. 1880.

Angel Street East out of King Edward Street at No.9 to St. Martin's le Grand (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward and Farringdon Ward Within.

A tradesman's token in this street was issued 1649-72 (Burn, p.12).

Former name : " Angel Alley " within the site of the College of St. Martin's le Grand in Parishes of St. Anne and St. Leonard Foster Lane, 34 H. VIII. 1542 (L. and P. H. VIII. XVII. 396).

Perhaps named after the Angel Inn, which stood on the north side of the street.

Angel Street Out of Little Moorfields, in Cripplegate Ward Without (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Angell Alley, Leadenhall Street See Hartshorn Alley.

Annabaptist Court See Baptist's Head Court, Whitecross Street.

Anne (St.) On the north side of Gresham Street (formerly St. Anne's Lane) in Alders-gate Ward Within. It seems also to have been called St. Anne and St. Agnes (q.v.) and St. Agnes (q.v.) only, unless at one time there were two separate churches.

First mention found in records : " S. Anne de Aldredesgate," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I. 25).

It is said to have been attached to St. Martin's le Grand in the 11th century, and was perhaps included in William's charter to that foundation (N. and Q. 7th S. x. 174-5).

Other names : " St. Anne near Aldrichesgate," 1306 (Ct. H.W. I. 178). " St. Anne within Aldrychgate," 1407 (ib. II. 370). " St. Anne in the willowes " (S. 309).

Burnt 1548, and newly repaired (ib.). Again repaired and beautified 1624. Steeple repaired 1629-30, and a new turret made (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 101). Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt of rubbed brick (ib. 121), the parish of St. John Zachary being united to it.

Patrons : Dean of St. Martin's le Grand (Arnold's Chronicle, 247). Afterwards, the Abbot and Convent of Westminster (Newcourt, I. 278).

Dedication to the mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

See Anne (St.) and St. Agnes.

Anne (St.) and St. Agnes On the north side of Gresham Street at No.7 (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward Within.

First mention : " SS. Anne and Agnes within Aldrichegate," 1467 (Ct. H.W. II. 557).

Other form : " Parish of St. Ann Agnes near Aldersgate," 1597 (ib. 724). It seems also to have been described variously as St. Anne (q.v.) and also as St. Agnes (q.v.), and it was probably one parish and church with a double dedication, as the names do not appear separately in any one list of churches and parishes, but sometimes one designation is used and sometimes another.

It was rebuilt after the Fire by Sir C. Wren and the parish of St. John Zachary united to it.

A Rectory. Patrons : The Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's present to the living alternately.

The dedication is to the mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary and to St. Agnes, the virgin-martyr, who suffered about 304.

Anne (St.) at the Tourhill " Anne on the Towr Hill and Abbey of Whit Monkys " (Arnold's Chronicle, p. 247 and p. 75).

" Seynt Anne Abbey within Portsokyn Warde, of White Munkys," 1516 (Fabyan's Chronicle, p. 297).

¶These entries would seem to refer to the Cistercian Abbey of St. Mary Graces by the Tower of London, which was the only Cistercian Abbey in the City, and it appears from Cal. Papal Letters, quoted in Victoria Co. Hist. London, p. 462, that the Abbey Church was dedicated to St. Anne.

Anne (St.) Blackfriars On the east side of Church Entry, north of Glasshouse Yard in Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).

First mention : " Parish of St. Anne within the site of the Friars Preachers," 36 H. VIII. 1544 (L. and P. H. VIII. XIX. (2), p.192).

This was the parish church for the inhabitants of the precinct of the Blackfriars, as distinct from the conventual church set apart for the use of the Friars only, and the Prior maintained at his own cost a curate to serve the parishioners there.

The site was appropriated by Sir Thos. Cawarden as part of the priory precincts given to him, but in the reign of Queen Mary he had to find a place of worship for the parishioners within the precincts, and this parish church Stow says was rebuilt and enlarged, 1597.

The church and churchyard were purchased by the inhabitants of the precinct, 1607. The church was again enlarged, 1613. Burnt down in the Fire 1666 and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Andrew Wardrobe (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 180, 194).

Anne (St.) Blackfriars' Churchyard At the north-west end of Church Entry (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1880).

Purchased by the inhabitants of the Blackfriars precinct, 1607 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 180).

Anne (St.), Chapel of Erected by John de Grantham near the church of St. Antonin, 1345 (Ct. H.W. I. 476), in honour of St. Anne and other saints. He to be buried in the chapel of St. Anne and St. John the Baptist near the church of St. Antonin 1350-1 (ib. 648).

John de Causton made a bequest to the Fraternity of St. Anne in the chapel annexed to the parish church of St. Antolini 1353 (ib. 672).

Anne's (St.) Fraternity There was a fraternity of St. Anne in the church of St. Michael Cornhill, 5 H. IV. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2225).

Bequest by William de Grantham, pepperer, to the Fraternity of St. Anne, 1350-1 (Ct. H.W. I. 648).

Anne's (St.) School In Foster Lane. Established 1709. For 30 boys and 30 girls.

In praise of St. Anne and St. Agnes.

Now known as the Royal Asylum of St. Anne's Society and removed to Redhill.

Ann's (St.) Alley North out of St. Ann's Lane and east to Noble Street, in Aldersgate Ward Within, between St. Ann's Church and Churchyard. (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1755).

Seems to be called " Pope Lane End " (q.v.) by Stow. " St. Ann's Passage " (Lockie, 1810, and Elmes, 1831). Now merely a pathway through the churchyard to the church.

Ann's (St.) Churchyard On the north side of St. Ann's Lane, south and east of the church (O. and M. 1677-O.S. 1880).

It is still in existence, giving entrance to the church.

Ann's (St.) Lane West out of Foster Lane to St. Martin's le Grand, in Aldersgate Ward Within (O.S. 1880).

First mention : Temp. Queen Elizabeth (Proc. in Chancery, II. 151).

Now called Gresham Street (q.v.).

Named after the church of St. Anne.

Annunciation of the Virgin Mary Without Aldrichegate (Chapel of) John Bret directed that he should be buried in the new churchyard of this chapel, 1349 (Ct. H.W. I. 604).

Qy. =Newchurch haw or Pardon Churchyard formed in 1349.

See Mary (St.) Without Aldersgate.

Antelope Inn On the west side of West Smithfield, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1755).

Mentioned in Chancery Proceedings, 1579-1639, in Record Office.

Afterwards called " White Swan Inn," West Smithfield (q.v.).

Antelyne (St.) See Antholin (St.) and Anthony [Antony?] (St.), Budge Row.

Antholin (St.) On the north-east side of Budge Row, near its junction with Queen Victoria Street and Watling Street. In Cordwainer Ward (O.S. 1880).

Earliest mention : " St. Antonin," c. 1119 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 63).

Other names and forms : " St. Antolin," 13 Ed. I. (Ch. Inq. p.m. (25)). " St. Antonji," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 228). " St. Antony," 1350 (Ct. H.W. I. 634). " St. Auntelin," 14 Ed. III. (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 43). " St. Tauntelyne," 7 Rich. II. (Cal. L. Bk. H. 225). " St. Anthony Boge rowe," 7 H. IV. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2042). " St. Antonin de Watlyng strete," 1402 (Ct. H.W. II. 352). " St. Antonin in Watlyngstrete," 1443 (ib. 500). " Antelyne in Bogerowe," 1500-21 (Arnold's Chr. p. 247). " St. Antonin de Walbrook," 1403 (Ct. H.W. II. p. 355). " Seynt Autolyns " (Arnold's Chr. p.77). " Antelyne in Bogerowe " (ib. p.247). " SeyntAncelyne " (Fabyan, p.296).

In 1312-13 in a will proved in the Court of Hustings, mention is made of rents in the parish of " St. Antonin in Walebrok Street " (Ct. H.W. I. 236).

It is difficult to identify this street, as no part of the present Walbrook is in the parish of St. Antholin.

The earliest reference to the church occurs in the MSS. belonging to the D. and C. of St. Paul's, about 1119, when a dispute having taken place between William the priest " de sancto Antonino " and Derman as to their right to the church, they entered into a solemn compact not to do any injury to each other on account of the church, but to have it in common, one half to each, and they granted the church to the Canons of St. Paul, paying a rent of 12d. to the canons during their lives in recognition of the grant (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. p.63).

An inquisition was taken of the ornaments, etc., in the church in 1181 (ib. 68). Chapel of St. Anne and St. John Baptist annexed to it by John de Grantham, 1345 (Ct. H.W. I. 476). Church rebuilt by Thos. Knowles, mayor, 1400 (S. 109 and 252). Again rebuilt or enlarged by John Tate, mayor, 1514 (ib. 113).

Repaired and beautified, 1616, for £900 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 15, 16).

Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt, 1682 (ib. 17 and 18).

Encroachments made on the site before the rebuilding of the church (ib.). Parish of St. John the Baptist Walbrook united to it after the Fire. Church finally taken down in 1874 and site, etc., sold for £44,990. Parish united to St. Mary Aldermary with St. Thomas Apostle and St. John the Baptist upon Walbrook. There is a representation of the church in stone at the corner of Budge Row to commemorate the site.

A Rectory. Advowson belonged to Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's.

Dedicated to St. Anthony, the Hermit, died 357 (Newcourt, I. 233).

The order of St. Anthony of Vienna was instituted 1095, and possibly the church was built about this time.

The " I " in the name has crept in in error.

Anthony (St.) (Hospital of) On the north side of Threadneedle Street (S. 181). In Broad Street Ward. Stow tells us that there was built on the site in 1231 a Jewish synagogue (ib.), but the site before 1254 was granted by H. III. to the brotherhood of St. Anthony of Vienna to be a cell of that house. Mentioned in Bull of Pope Alexander of that year (MSS. D. and C. St. George, Windsor, quoted in Vict. Co. Hist. p. 181).

The house consisted of a master, two priests, a schoolmaster and twelve poor men, and was used as a hospital. It came into the possession of the King under the Alien Priories Act 1414, and became a royal free chapel (ib.). Soon after the master and wardens acquired more land and a free school and almshouses were built (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1422-9, p. 518). The church of St. Benet Fink was appropriated to the Hospital for the benefit of the school (Vict. Co. Hist. 582). The Hospital was annexed by Ed. IV. to the Collegiate Church of St. George's Windsor in 1475 (S. 186). Church rebuilt 1499 (V. Co. Hist. p. 583). After the Dissolution the Hospital was despoiled by one of the prebends of Windsor and the almsmen turned out. The church was let to the French Protestants in Elizabeth's reign, and the school, which had been important and flourishing, fell into decay (S. 186).

The French church was rebuilt after the Fire, and is shown at No.51 Threadneedle Street in Horwood 1799. It was pulled down about 1840 for the formation of new approaches to the Royal Exchange.

See French Protestant Church.

The following remarks of Mrs. Jameson may throw some light on the practice mentioned by Stow as to stray pigs being appropriated to the maintenance of the Hospital. She says she had read somewhere that the hog was given to St. Anthony because he had been a swineherd and cured the diseases of swine. But this was a mistake. The hog was the representative of the demon of sensuality and gluttony, which Antony is supposed to have vanquished by the exercises of piety and by Divine aid. The ancient custom of placing in all his effigies a black pig at his feet, or under his feet, gave rise to the superstition, that this unclean animal was especially dedicated to him and under his protection. The monks of the order of St. Anthony kept herds of consecrated pigs, which were allowed to feed at the public charge, and which it was a profanation to steal or kill ; hence the proverb about the fatness of " Tanthony pigs."

Antony (St.) See Antholin (St.).

Antony's (St.) School Founded in the reign of H. VI. in the Hospital of St. Anthony (q.v.). Perhaps the most celebrated in London before St. Paul's School was erected.

This school was founded with others in London in St. Martin's le Grand, St. Mary le Bow, St. Dunstan's in the East, etc., in response to a petition presented in 1447 to the King by the rectors of the parishes of All Hallows the Great, St. Andrew Holborn, St Peter Cornhill and St. Mary Colechurch (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. I. (2), p. 17).

Aphelingstrate See Atheling Street.

Apollo Court North out of Fleet Street, west of Chancery Lane, in Farringdon Ward Without, part of Bell Yard (Rocque, 1746-O.S. 1875).

Now called Bell Yard (q.v.).

Will's Coffee House was at one time known as the " Apollo," from a music-room so Galled in the tavern, which bad been started in imitation of the " Apollo room " at the famous tavern known as the " Devil."

The court was no doubt named after the tavern.

Apothecaries' Company Formed one company with the Grocers at first. Incorporated as a separate Company 1617. Grocers petitioned against separation in vain, 1621. So long previously as 1328, the elections to the Mystery of Apothecaries were made separately from those to the Grocers (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232), although for many years subsequently, as in 1365, there was only one Warden for the trade of Grocers, Pepperers and Apothecaries (ib.G. p. 204).

Physic garden at Chelsea given to them by Sir Hans Sloane (Dodsley, 1761).

Styled the Society of Apothecaries.

Apothecaries' Hall On the east side of Water Lane, Blackfriars (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : Leake, 1666.

Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1670.

Archdeacon (Chapel of) " Capellanus Domini Archdiaconi."

¶Mentioned in the list of London benefices 31 Ed. I. Lib. Cust. I. 229. But the site is not indicated.

Archer's Alley East out of Peter Street. In Bishopsgate Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799). The site is now occupied by the lines, etc., of the North London and Great Eastern Railways.

Arches (Court of) See Doctors' Commons and Mary (St.) Le Bow.

Arches (Les) See College Street.

Arkenwald's (St.) Rents See Erkenwald's Tenements.

Armenterslane See Westoneslane.

Armourers and Braziers' Company Incorporated as the Armourers' Co. about 1453. The Braziers joined the Company afterwards, in 1708 (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. II. (3), p. 301).

Twenty-second in rank. In existence as early as 1307-27. Blacksmiths incorporated with them 1515.

Armourers and Braziers' Hall On the east side of Coleman Street at No. 81, at its junction with London Wall (P.O. Directory). In Coleman Street Ward.

First mention : Elmes, 1831.

Other names and forms of name : " Armorers Hale " on the north side of the Bell in " Colman Streete," 24 Eliz. (1583) (Lond. I. p.m. III. p. 57). " Armourers Hall " (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. p. 64). " Braziers Hall " (Horwood, 1799).

The site for the hall was originally acquired in 1428 by the destruction of the Dragon and two shops, and the hall was enlarged 1750 and 1777 (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. II. (3), p. 311).

Old Hall designed by W. Creswell. Rebuilt 1840, architect, J. H. Good, junr.

Armourers' Hall See Armourers and Braziers' Hall.

Arms of the City Argent, plain cross gules, in the dexter chief canton a sword erect in pale of the second.

Crest : A dragon's wing argent charged with a cross gules.

The arms incorporate the cross of St. George with the sword of St. Paul, the patron saint of the City.

Arnold's Court South out of Barbican, in Aldersgate Ward Without (Strype, 1720-Boyle, 1799).

Site now occupied by offices and business houses.

Probably named after the owner or builder.

Arounes Lane Lands and tenements within the parish of St. Peter the Less in " Themsestrete," situate between the lane called " Fresshfisshlane " and the lane called " Kyngeslane," otherwise " Arounes lane," 1449 (Ct. H.W. II. 517).

The property referred to must have been in Queenhithe Ward.

There was a Kingesgate lane in this parish mentioned in the Hust. Roll 3 Ed. I. described as in Castle Baynard Ward. This would suggest the identification with St. Peter's Hill, which was on the boundary of Castle Baynard and Queenhithe Wards, and of the parishes of St. Peter Paul's Wharf and St. Benet, Paul's Wharf.

Arraces Selde The reversion of this seld was devised by Thomas atte Puwe to Alice his wife, 1342 (Ct. H.W. I. 472).

Probably the seld of Robert de Arraz mentioned in the will of Henry le Wimpler, 1281. Henry had a chest in the seld, and Stephen de Scholaunde had two chests in it, 1283. It seems to have belonged to Alice de Arraz, Robert's wife, in 1326-7 (ib. 56, 66, 319).

See Selds.

Arthur Street West out of King William Street at No. 32 and south to 137 Upper Thames Street (P.O. Directory). In Candlewick, Bridge Within and Dowgate Wards.

Formed in accordance with an Act of Parliament of 1829 to provide for the formation of approaches to the New London Bridge. The street was cut through Miles' Lane and St. Martin's Lane, and completely absorbed the southern end of St. Martin's Lane.

It was originally called Arthur Street West to distinguish it from the eastern arm leading into King William Street from Monument Square, but when this eastern portion was finally absorbed in Monument Street in 1911, the necessity for the distinctive suffix passed away and the street is now called "Arthur Street " only.

Arthur Street East East out of King William Street at No. 46 to Monument Square (O.S.). In Bridge Ward Within.

Erected about 1835 under the Act for the formation of the approaches to the new London Bridge.

In the maps of the 17th and 18th centuries the site is occupied by " Bell Yard," etc.

So named to distinguish it from Arthur Street West.

Since October, 1911, called Monument Street (q.v.).

Arthur Street West See Arthur Street.

Artichoak Court West out of White Cross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831).

See Artichoke Place.

Name derived from the sign.

Artichoke Court South out of Cannon Street at No. 32, east of Green Lettuce Lane. In Candlewick Ward (O. and M. 1677-Elmes, 1831).

" Artichoak Court " in Rocque, 1746. " Artichoak Lane " in Hatton, 1708.

The site is now occupied by the London Fire Brigade Station.

Artichoke Place West out of Whitecross Street, south of May Square, in Cripplegate Ward Without (O.S. 1875).

Former name : " Artichoak Court " (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831).

Artillery Ground See Old Artillery Ground.

Artillery Lane East out of Bishopsgate (P.O. Directory). In Bishopsgate Ward Without and Stepney. Nos. 2 to 30 and I to 23 are within the City boundary (ib.).

First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Former names : " Berewards lane," temp. Ed. I. and II. (Hist. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 6b, MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's). " Hogge Lane " (S. 167).

The eastern end is called " Artillery Street " in Strype, 1720 and 1755.

¶On the site of the Old Artillery Ground (q.v.), from which it derives its present appellation.

Artirce, The King's In Lime Street.

Stow describes it as a mansion house of the Kings, 14 Ed. I. (S. 152), and Strype says that Queen's Square was erected on the site of a large house, anciently supposed to belong to the Kings and Queens (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 89).

Described as the King's mansion called the kynges " artery " in Lymestrete, 14 Ed. IV. 1474 (Cal. P.R. Ed. IV. 1467-77, p. 439). Ed. I. is evidently an error for Ed. IV. in Stow and the ' c ' probably an error for ' e,' which would make the word " artiree."

See Queen's Colledge Passage Square.

It does not seem to be possible to arrive at any satisfactory explanation or derivation of this word unless it is a contracted form of the word " artelries "=" artillery," and was a storehouse for arms. The word " artelleries " occurs in this sense in Chaucer's " Tale of Melibeus " and " artery " might be a contraction, originally written thus : " arteries." The form " artry " is given in N.E.D., s.v. " artillery."

Artizan Street South out of Harrow Alley, Middlesex Street to Stoney Lane. In Portsoken Ward.

Erected in 1884 as Artizan's Street, name changed May, 1911, to the present form.

The Artizans' Industrial Dwellings were commenced in 1884, and with the Metropolitan Railway occupy the site of several former Courts, viz. : " Allen's Court," " Ebenezer Square," " Mount Court," " Barnes's Buildings," " Meeting House Yard," Gravel Lane, "Sadlers' Hall Court."

Arundel Lane A tenement at the corner of the lane called "Arundel lane" in the parish of All Hallows upon the solar (the less) in Thamisestrete is mentioned in 1432-3 (Ct. H.W. II. 361).

Not further identified.

Ashantree Court See Ashentree [Ashentbee?] Court, Temple Street.

Ashen Tree Court. -North out of George Yard and Magpie Alley, Whitefriars (L.C.C. list, 1912). In Farringdon Ward Without.

Called : " Ashentbee Court " (O.S. 1880).

Ashentbee [Ashentree?] Court North out of Temple Street, Whitefriars, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. M. 1677-Elmes, 1831).

Now called " Glasshouse Alley " (q.v.). " Ashantree Court " (Horwood, 1799).

The southern end out of White Friars is called " Cloth Workers Court " in O. and M. 1677, and " Paved Alley " in Rocque.

Probably named from the sign, which may have indicated the existence of an ash tree in the locality.

Ashentree Court North out of George Yard and Magpie Alley, within the precinct of Whitefriars (O.S. 1880).

See Ashen Tree Court, Whitefriars.

Ashman's Court West out of Temple Street to the Temple. In Farringdon Ward Without (Elmes, 1831).

Not further identified.

Probably named after the owner or builder.

Ashurst's Court North out of Distaff Lane, west of Cordwainers' Hall, in Bread Street Ward (O. and M. 1677).

Site now occupied by offices and business houses.

Probably named after the owner.

Askew Almshouses See Drapers' Almshouses.

Asselyneswharf See Gibson's Key.

Athel Street, Athelestreet . See Addle Hill.

Athelane See Addle Street.

Athelburga (St.) See Ethelburga (St.), Bishopsgate.

Atheling Steeet Grant of a rent in the parish of St. Thomas the Apostle, between the lane called " Athelingstrete " north and the land (?=lane) leading to " la Ryole " south, 1289 (Anc. Deeds, A. 2526).

Houses in " Athelyngestrate " are also described as in the parish of St. Mary de Eldemariechurch, 1272-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 13).

" Aphelingestrate,"1213 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1499). " Ayelynstrate," 1348 (Ct. H.W. I. 536).

It seems probable from a comparison of some of these deeds, in which the names of the parties and witnesses are identical, that these forms are merely variations of the same name and relate to " AEtheling (or Noble Street) as Leyland termeth it, commonly called Wathling Streete " (q.v.) (S. 252).

Athelingstreet See Addle Hill.

Aubrees Watergate A lane so called mentioned as a boundary of property granted by John de Suffolch to Eustace the prior, and the convent of Holy Trinity, 1 Edward I.

The property is described as " a quay with houses and shops built thereon extending from the High Street to the Thames and from the angle of the lane called ' Aubrees Watergate ' to the quay of William, son of Edmund de Essex " (Anc. Deeds, A. 7283).

Evidently a lane leading down to the Thames belonging to one Aubree, but not identified.

These " watergates," whether lanes, quays or gates to the river were very numerous and often had no distinguishing prefix. Three of them are mentioned simply as " le Watergate " in the enquiry held in 17 Edward III. into the condition of the approaches to the Thames (Lib. Cust. II. 446).

Auction Mart Sale Rooms On the west side of Tokenhouse Yard at No.19 (P.O. Directory).

Built about 1865. Architect, S. Clarke.

The rooms were formerly in Bartholomew Lane on the site now occupied by the Alliance Assurance Co.'s Offices.

Audeleeshalle A messuage so called in the suburbs of London outside Aldersgate. Described in an inquisition 10 Edward II. 73, as in a ruinous condition and therefore valueless. Held of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's.

Thomas de Aldithelegh was heir, under age, a ward to the King. The name occurs as Daudele or de Aldithelegh.

No later reference.

Audoen (St.) At the north corner of Eldenese Lane (Warwick Lane), in Farringdon Ward Within (S. 345). The parish extended into Castle Baynard Ward.

First mention : " Parochia sancti Audoeni," c. 1220 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Press A. Box 22, 867).

Other forms and names : " St. Audoen within Neugate," 1396 (Ct. H.W. II. 321). " St Audewin within Neuwegate," 1361 (ib. 44). " St. Andoem," 1569 (Lond. I. p.m. II. 121). " St Ouen," 1220 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 23). " St. Owyn," 1322 (Ct. H.W. I. 296). " St. Owan within Neugate," 1349-50 (Ct. H.W. I. 628). " Seynt Iweyne," 1374 (ib. ii. 162). " Sancti Owini, St. Iwyn," 1385 (Cal. P.R. Rich. II. 1385-9, p. 50). " St. Ewenna, 1542 (L. and P. H. VIII. XVII. 393). " St. Edwin," 1543 (ib. XVIII. (2), p. 60).

Ewin is the same saint as Owen or Audowen called " Sancti Audoeni juxta fratres minores " (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 193). " Seint Ewen." " Owyn wtin Newgate " (Arnold's Chronicles, pp. 77 and 253). " Seynt Yeuan " (Fabyan's Chr. p. 296).

There was a fraternity of St. Anne in the church (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 193).

After the dissolution of the monasteries, temp. H. VIII., and the suppression of the Greyfriars monastery, the parishes of St. Nicholas Shambles, St. Audoen, and St. Sepulchre within Newgate were united to form the parish of Christ Church, Newgate (q.v.).

The parish church of St. Audoen was granted to the mayor and citizens, 38 H. VIII. (L. and P.H. VIII. XXI. (2), p. 416).

Augustin Friars In Broad Street Ward, on the west side of Old Broad Street.

A priory of Augustinian Friars founded by Humfrey Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex 1253, enlarged 1334, rebuilt 1354 (S. 178) (Cal. P.R. 8 Ed. III. 1334-8, p. 31).

The church consisted of a choir, with north and south aisles, chapels of St. John and St. Thomas, transepts, and nave of two aisles. It had a fine spired steeple, small, high and straight (S. 178). Destroyed 1362 and rebuilt.

At the dissolution of the monasteries the great mansion within the close, with hall, cloyster, etc., was given in 1539 by the King to Sir Richard Ryche (L. and P. H. VIII. XIV. (1), p. 588) and other parts, viz. the church, etc., were given to William Poulett, lord Seynt John, who built a large house called Powlet House, or Winchester House, within the precinct and walls of the Priory 1539 (ib. p. 421).

The west end of the church was enclosed from the steeple and choir and in 1550 granted to the Dutch nation in London (S. 177). It is 153 ft. long and 85 ft. wide.

The steeple and east end were pulled down between 1603 and 1618, in spite of the remonstrances of the Mayor and Aldermen, who described it as one of the beautifullest and rarest spectacles of the City (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 114).

All but the outer walls and columns of the existing church dividing the nave and the aisles were destroyed by fire in 1862, and after this fire it was proposed to pull down the church and erect a chapel on its site. But the determined opposition of the trustees supported by Gilbert Scott to this act of vandalism prevented the destruction of these noble remains, one of the few relics of 14th or 15th century work left in the City.

Gilbert Scott described the building as a noble model of a preaching nave, for which purpose he considers that it was specially designed, being of great size and openness, upwards of 150 ft. by 80 ft. internally, supported by light and lofty pillars sustaining 18 arches. The style is Early Perpendicular.

The church was accordingly restored in 1863-5 under the direction of the architects l'Anson and Lightly.

There is a good account of the church in the Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. II. i.

There was a fraternity of the Holy Blood of Wilsnak in Saxony in the Church of the Friars in 1490, and the ordinances of the brotherhood are set out in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. IV. p. 47.

A 14th-century archway and wall have been discovered in the wall of a house standing north side of the nave. Perhaps a portion of the Priory cloisters (M. and H. Notes and Q. VI. p. 69).

The site of the monastery is now occupied by Austin Friars, Great Winchester Street, Little Winchester Street, Austin Friars Passage, the Dutch Church, etc. (q.v.).

See Winchester Place.

Augustine (St.) ad Portam See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.

Augustine (St.) by London Wall See Augustine (St.) Papey.

Augustine (St.) in le Eldechaunge See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.

Augustine (St.) next Old Fish Street See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.

Augustine (St.) Papey, or in the Wall Opposite the north end of St. Mary Axe at Bevis Marks adjoining the Wall of London. Shown in Agas (G). In a detached portion of the parish of All Hallows, London Wall, in the present Aldgate Ward, but originally this site was in Lime Street Ward, as appears from a grant 6 Ed. IV. in Cott. MS. Vitell. F. XVI.

Hugo, in his paper on the Hospital of Le Papey published in the Trans. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. V. pp. 183, et seq., suggests that the church was on or adjoining to the site of a little graveyard in Camomile Street, once used as a burial place for the parish of St. Martin Outwich, and this is the site indicated on the O.S. ed. 1875. But this seems rather too far west from the description given of the site and dimensions of the church about 1440, and its situation at Bevis Marks (ib. p. 192), which in those days would mean the house of the Abbot of Bury, not the present street of that name.

In the document there set out the church is described as follows :

" The Chapel, late the Parish Church, called Papey Church, late in the Parish of All Saints aforesaid in Aldgate Ward, situate at Beausmarkes next London Wall."

The dimensions of the land included in the grant of the church, etc., are given, but as given in rods the dimensions would seem to be altogether too large. If yards are intended the measurements would be 180 ft. north, and 172 ft. south in length, and 24 ft. in breadth, which would be reasonable, and this site might be represented by a strip of land between Bevis Marks and the wall, as shown in the Guildhall Agas.

Kingsford says the church is called in 1170-87 St. Augustine " super murum," in the Guildhall MS. 122, f. 508. But in 1244 in Fulk Basset's register of London churches it is called " Sci augustini pappey " (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. f. 50), and is usually so styled in records.

In the list of London benefices in the Lib. Cust. I. 228 and 234, 31 Ed. I. the advowson of St. Augustine Papey is given as belonging to the Priory of Holy Trinity, and it appears from the Lansdowne MS. 448, f. 8, that the church was in the soke which Queen Maud gave to the Priory.

In 1428 it is stated in Letter-Book K, p. 75, that there were not 10 inhabitant householders in the parish, and it was accordingly agreed by the Priory, with the consent of the Bishop of London, that the church should be annexed to the church and parish of All Hallows, London Wall, 20 H. VI. (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1441-6, p. 3) and (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. V.p. 192).

At the same time, namely in 1442, was founded the Fraternity of the Papey for the maintenance of poor priests, and the church of St. Augustine with some adjoining land was given to the brotherhood as part of their endowment (ib.).

After the dissolution of the Monasteries and other religious foundations, when the Papey was likewise dissolved, temp. Ed. VI., the Church was taken down and the site built over, the churchyard being reserved for a garden (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 88).

Derivation of name : It is obvious from the foregoing notices relating to this church that it existed and was so designated long before the Fraternity and Hospital of Le Papey were founded, and that therefore Stow's derivation of the name from the poor priests called " Papes " (S. 148) is quite untenable.

It has been suggested that inasmuch as the church belonged to the Priory of Holy Trinity of Augustinian Canons and that the relics of St. Augustine were preserved in the church of San Pietro at Pavia (Papia), held by the Augustinian Canons of Mortara, the church may have received its designation of " Papey " from that town (Kingsford's Stow, II. p. 293), and in the register of Holy Trinity Priory, Lansdowne MS. 448, f. 9, it is referred to as " St. Augustine ' pauie ' juxta murum."

Dasent says that a common name for Anchorites among the Northmen was " Papar," and that they are designated by the name " Papey" in Orkney and Shetland, the Faroe Islands, and in Iceland. Is it possible that in early days there was an Anchorite so called having his abode near to this church?

See Papey (The) and Anchorites.

Augustine (St.) Parvus See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.

Augustine (St.) Street Street of St. Augustine at St. Paul's Gate, 1311 (Ct. H.W. I. 224) and 1334 (ib. 398).

Not identified. Would seem to be either a part of Watling Street or Old Change.

Augustine (St.) Watling Street.-On the north side of Watling Street and east of Old Change, at No.32 in Farringdon Ward Within (P.O. Directory).

Earliest mention : " St. Augustine," 1148 (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. p. 63).

" By this deed, the canons of St. Paul granted the Church of St. Augustine to Edward the priest for his life, for payment of 20 solidi in each of the first six years for building the church and afterwards for one mark of silver every year. The bounds of the parish are formed by the ' mansura ' of Alured de Windresores, Nicholas Parv and Hugo le Noreis."

Other forms of name : " St. Augustine's Church before the gate of St. Paul's " (temp. John, Anc. Deeds, A. 1966). " St. Augustine by St. Paul's Churchyard," 35 H. III. (ib. A. 1605). " Sci augustini ppe sanctum Paulum " (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Lib. L. f. 93), 1285. " Sancti Augustini ad Portam " 31 Edward I. (Lib. Cust. I. 228). " St. Augustine at St. Paul's Gate," 1298 (Ct. H.W. I. 136). " St. Augustine near St. Paul's Gate," 1309 (Ct. H.W. I. 209). " St. Augustine by Distaflane," 20 Edward II. (Cal. P.R. Edward II. 1324-7, p. 321). " St. Augustine by side of St. Paul's Gate," 19 Edward III. L. Bk. F. p.132). " St. Augustine in le Eldechaunge," 1352-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 668). " St. Augustine next Oldfyssh stret," 41 Edward III. (Ch. I. p.m.). " St. Augustine near le Eldechaunge," 1373 (ib. II. 154). " Sancti Augustini pvi," 34 Edward III. (WestAbbey MSS. Parcel 44 (12) temp. Rich. II. " St. Augustine by the door of St. Paul's," 6 H. IV. (Anc. Deeds, C. 1722). " St. Augustin in Watlying Strete bi Poules Gate," 1500-21 (Arnold's Chronicle, p. 247). " St. Austin by St. Paul's," 2 Edward IV. (Anc. Deeds, C. 35).

In 31-32 H. III. Alexander le Cordewaner made a grant of land to the church on the north side for the enlargement of the church and for the erection of an altar in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 3).

Lately well repaired (S. 325). Partly rebuilt and beautified 1630-1. Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1682-95 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 140). St. Faith's Parish united to it (ib. 197). Restored 1829.

A Rectory. Patrons : Canons of St. Paul's.

It seems probable that the dedication is to St. Augustine of Canterbury, and it is noteworthy that the church so dedicated stood near to the church dedicated to St. Gregory the Great, to whose inspiration and determination the Anglican Church is indebted for the mission of St. Augustine.

Augustine's (St.) Gate Leading out of St. Paul's Churchyard at the south-east corner to Watling Street (Leake, 1666).

First mention : " Gate of St. Augustine," 1282 (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-2, p. 24). " St. Augustine's Gate," 1305 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 198). " St. Paul's Gate," 1369 (Ct. H.W. II. 131). " Seint Austyn's Gate," 16 Ed. IV. (Anc. Deeds, A. 10953). " Paule's Gate," 1544 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 3b). " Poule's Gate," 1500-21 (Arnold's Chr. p. 247).

Burnt down in the Fire and not rebuilt, although for many years after the entrance into the churchyard at this point was still known by this name (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 197).

Named after the church of St. Augustine, Watling Street (q.v.).

The shortened form " Austin " which appears as early as Piers Plowman indicates that the name Augustine was pronounced with the accent on the first syllable, and not as now, on the second.

Aurifabria See Goldsmithery.

Austin (St.) See Augustine (St.) in the Harben index.

Austin Friars North out of Old Broad Street, in Broad Street Ward, at No.70 (P.O. Directory).

Built on the site of the Priory of the Augustine Friars after the dissolution of the priory and the erection of Powlet House, etc. Hence the name.

Shown in O. and M. 1677.

" St. Austin Fryers." " St. Augustin Fryers " (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 108).

Austin Friars Passage North out of Austin Friars at No.12 (P.O. Directory) to Great Winchester Street. In Broad Street Ward.

First mention : Elmes, 1831.

Former name : " Bell Alley " (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

There was a messuage called " le Bell " in parish of St. Peter Paupertatis, 36 H. VIII. 1545 (L. and P. H. VIII. XX. Pt. I. p. 307), from which this alley probably derived its name.

The present name commemorates the Priory of the Augustine Friars, on a portion of the site of which this passage stands.

Austin Friars Square Out of Old Broad Street. In Broad Street Ward (L.C.C. List, 1912).

Austine's Rents West out of Noble Street to London Wall. In Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).

Site seems occupied in the later maps by Brook Alley, or Goodwin Court (q.v.).

Austin's Court East out of St. Mary Hill, north of Cross Lane (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 173). In Billingsgate Ward.

Not mentioned elsewhere.

Sir John Austin held property in the parish of St. Botolph Billingsgate, in 1659, and gave an annuity of £5 for the poor of the parish, which is received from the tenant of a house in Lower Thames Street (End. Ch. Rep. 1903, p. 2).

The Court was probably named after Sir John Austin.

Australian Avenue South out of Barbican, at No.15 to the Crescent, in Cripplegate Ward Without.

First mention : O.S. 1894.

Fig-tree Court formerly stood on the site, also Trafalgar Place and Young's Buildings.

Ave Maria Lane North out of Ludgate Hill at 16 and 18 to Paternoster Row and Amen Corner (P.O. Directory).

In Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : " Ave Mary Lane " (S. 340-1).

First called : " Ave Maria Lane," 1641 (L. and P. Charles I. xviii. 193). " Ave-maria aly," 1506, in " Cocke Lorelles Bote," printed by Wynkyn de Worde.

So called of text writers and bead makers dwelling there (S. 340).

But See suggested derivation under Amen Court.

The earliest mention of this lane is of comparatively late date, and it seems probable that in earlier times it may have formed part of Eldeneslane, Old Dean's Lane (now Warwick Lane) and may have been known by one of these names (q.v.).

Avenue (The) West out of Mincing Lane into Great Tower Street. In Tower Ward. (Bacon, 1912).

First mention : O.S. 1875.

¶In the beginning of the 19th century it seems to have been merely a courtyard to No.14 Mincing Lane (Horwood, 1799).

Ax Yard West out of Little Britain, in Aldersgate Ward Without (Strype, ed. 1720-Boyle, 1799).

This site is now occupied by some of the buildings belonging to St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Axe Alley, Leadenhall Street See Sussex Place.

Axe Inn On the east side of Aldermanbury, at No.20, in Cripplegate Ward Within (O. and M. 1677-Elmes, 1831).

The site has been rebuilt and is now occupied by offices and warehouses, etc.

Axe Yard East out of St. Mary Axe. In Aldgate Ward (O. and M. 1677).

No later reference.

Axe Yard, Lime Street East out of Lime Street. In Aldgate Ward, near the Ward boundary (Strype, 1720-55).

Seems to be the same as " Ball Alley," Lime Street (q.v.). Name derived from the sign.

Ayelynstrete See Athelyngstreet.

Ayre's Charity Almshouses On the north side of Moorgate Street Buildings, at the western end (O.S.). In Coleman Street Ward. Founded 1544 by Mr. Christopher Ayre, merchant and leather-seller for six poor men and their wives. Left in trust to the Leather-sellers' Company. These almshouses formed originally Almshouse Yard (q.v.) on the north side of White's Alley, Coleman Street, and are still shown on that site in O.S., although much altered and rebuilt. Removed 1894, and the inhabitants dispersed with liberal allowances (Welch).

Sometimes spelt Eyre, Air.

Baalun (Ward of Alan) See Ward of Alan Baalun.

Babeloyne A street so called in the parish of St. Alphege in Cripplegate Ward Within, 1385-6 (Ct. H.W. II. 252) and 1386 (ib. 256).

It is further described as " per murum civitatis London," which would seem to suggest a street identical with the present " London Wall " in St. Alphage parish.

Back (The) Alley, Cloth Fair See Back Court.

Back Alley See Little Bell Alley, Copthall Buildings.

Back Alley, Bear Alley South out of Bear Alley and west to Fleet Market (Rocque, 1746-Dodsley, 1761). See Back Bear Alley.

Back Alley, Dean's Court, St. Martin's le Grand South out of Dean's Court to New Rents, east of St. Martin's le Grand, in Aldersgate Ward Within (Rocque, I 746-Boyle, 1799).

Afterwards called Mouldmakers' Row (q.v.).

Back Alley, Great Gardens, St. Katherine's North out of the Great Gardens, St. Katherine's Lane, East Smithfield (Rocque, 1746-Lockie, 1816).

Site now covered by St. Katherine's Docks.

Back Alley, Shoe Lane East out of Shoe Lane, in Farringdon Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799).

Site now occupied by warehouses and offices.

Back Alley, Three Crane Lane A passage to the Thames out of Three Crane Lane (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799). In Vintry Ward.

The alley seems to have been removed and the site rebuilt about the beginning of the 19th century.

Back Alley, Three Foxes Court Out of Three Foxes Court, Long Lane, West Smithfield (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Back Alley, Yard, Little Moorfields West out of Back Street, Little Moorfields, with passage south to Moor Lane (Strype, ed. 1720), and leading to Ropemakers' Alley. Cripplegate Ward Without.

Back Bear Alley On the south side of Bear Alley, Fleet Market, in Farringdon (Lockie, 1810 and 1816).

Former names : " Little Bear Alley " (O. and M. 1677-Strype, ed. 1720). " Back Alley " (Rocque, 1746-Lond. Guide, 1758). " Black Bear Alley " in Elmes, 1831.

The proper designation was " Back Alley," Bear Alley.

The site has been rebuilt and is now occupied by offices and business houses.

Back Court North out of Cloth Fair at No.21 and east, parallel to and between Long Lane and Cloth Fair (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

First mention : Lockie, 1810.

Former names : " Back Alley " (Strype, 1720-Boyle, 1799). " Back Streate " (O. and M. 1677, and Strype). " Back Street," Hatton, 1708).

Lockie mentions two courts of this name here.

Described by Hatton, 1708, as on the western side of Swan Inn Passage, which is on the south side of Long Lane.

Back Gravel Lane, Houndsditch South out of Stoney Lane at No.40 to Gravel Lane (q.v.). In Portsoken Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention : L.C.C. list, 1912.

Back Streate, Cloth Fair See Back Court.

Back Street, Little Moorfields See Moorfields.

Back Yard Out of Pelican Court, Little Britain (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Back Yard Out of Woolpack Alley, Houndsditch (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Back Yard Out of Short Street, Moorfields (Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Back Yard Out of Little Bartholomew Close (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Back Yard Out of Bull Head Court, Jewin Street (Strype, 1755).

Not named in the maps.

Back, Backside, of St. Thomas Apostles See Little St. Thomas Apostles.

Backhouse A house given to the parish of St. Andrew Undershaft at the time when parish of St. Mary Axe was united to it (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 72).

No further reference.

See Vacke Court.

Backside of Ye Shambles Part of the southern side of Newgate Street, east of Ivy was so named in 1546 and 1617 in a " Plat of the Greyfriars " reproduced in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. V. 421.

Backwell Hall See Blackwell Hall.

Bacon House In Noble Street on the boundary of Aldersgate Ward Within. Formerly called Shelly House, as of old belonging to the Shelleyes, now called Bacon House, as being new built by Sir Nicholas Bacon (S. 305-6).

The site is given on the O.S. map, 1875, west of St. Mary Staining Church, at the north-west corner of Oat Lane, and this is confirmed by the following record :

The rents and houses of Thos. Shelly between the church of St. Mary at the end of Stanynglane end and Adlyngstrete were forfeited 1400 (Cal. P.R. H. IV. 1399-1401, p. 193).

The tenement was called " Shelles " in 1474 and 1482 (Cal. I. p.m. iv. 408).

Purchased by the Scriveners' Company in 1628 and made use of as their Hall. Prior to 1720, they sold the house to the Coachmakers' Company, except the front in Noble Street, which they retained (Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. 329-330).

See Coachmakers' Hall.

Bacon's Inn Gardens, lands and messuages on the east side of Chancery Lane adjoining the wall belonging to the land or gardens late of the Bishop of Lincoln and Staple Inne and abutting on lands late of the Abbot of Malmesbury, in occupation of Nicholas Bacon, 16 Eliz. (Add. MS. 25590).

Bacunysyn Tenement of John de Cantebrigge so called in parish of St. Sepulchre without Newgate, 1377 (Ct. H.W. II. 197).

Perhaps this tenement was adjacent to or included in the lease to John de Cantebrigge of tenements held by Wm. de Naples under the Commonalty of the City, situate outside Ludgate upon Houndesdiche between Ludgate and Newgate, 34 Ed. III.1360 (Cal. L. Bk. G. 121).

If so the site would be on or near to the former Sessions House in the Old Bailey.

Badgers Alley Houses in Badgers Alley mentioned in list of charities belonging to St. Antholin's parish (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 18). In Cordwainer Ward.

Not further identified.

Baermannecyrce See Martin (St.) Vintry.

Bagnio (The) See Bagnio Court.

Bagnio Court Street See Roman Bath Street.

Bailey (The) See Old Bailey.

Baily Place South-east out of Little Tower Hill to Upper East Smithfield (London Guide, 1758-Greenwood, 1827). In Portsoken Ward.

Former names : " Bayley's Place," 1651 (L. and P. Commonw. D.S. III. 199). " Blue Anchor Alley " (Hatton, 1708). " Blue Anchor Yard " (Rocque, 1746). " Bailey's Place " (London Guide, 1758).

A slaughter-house there in 1672 (L. and P. Chas. II. D.S. XIV. 377).

Removed for the formation of St. Katherine's Docks and adjacent warehouses, 1827.

Bakehouse Court See Paul's Bakehouse Court.

Baker's Alley Out of Monkwell Street (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Baker's Alley South out of Hart Street in Cripplegate Ward Within (P.C. 1732 Boyle, 1799).

Former name : " Bowyers Court " (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1755).

The Parish Clerks' Survey gives both names : " Bowyers Court," vulgarly " Baker's Alley."

Strype says " Bowyers Hall " formerly stood here, hence the name (Strype, ed. 1720. I. iii. 90).

The site has been rebuilt and is now occupied by offices and business houses.

Bakers' Arms Alley, Minories North out of Rosemary Lane, towards the middle of that street by the Bakers' Arms (Hatton, 1708-Elmes, 1831).

Not named in the maps.

The site has been rebuilt.

Baker's Buildings North out of Old Bethlem. In Bishopsgate Ward Without (Rocque, 1746-O.S. 1848-51).

Former name : " Crown Court " (Strype, ed. 1720).

The site is now occupied by the lines of the North London and Great Eastern Railways and by Liverpool Street Station.

Named after the builder or owner.

Bakers' Company Incorporated 1486 (Cal. L. Bk. L. p. 241).

The ordinances made to regulate the sale of bread from time to time were onerous as early as 1299-1300 it was found necessary to appoint eight officers to safeguard the craft of Bakers (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 57).

Two members of the Mistery of Bakers were elected to serve on the Common Council, 1376 (ib. H. p. 43).

The bakers at this time were divided into White-bakers and Tourte-bakers, having regulations for their use and guidance (ib. 106, and I. 258).

The ordinances of the Mistery of Broun bakers are set out 1481 (ib. L. 184-5), and numerous ordinances regulating the mistery are to be found in Liber Albus as at pp. 356-7, etc. Amongst other things they were to hold 4 " Halimota " in the year (Lib. Cust. I. 104-5), and these were to be held in the church of St. Thomas Acon (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 207).

The Master and Wardens of the craft and Fellowship of Whyte Bakers are mentioned in a Will of 1533 (Ct. H.W. II. 637).

Baker's Court, Half Moon Alley North out of Half Moon Alley, Little Moorfields (Dodsley, 1761-Lockie, 1816). In Cripplegate Ward Without.

¶Site now occupied by Moorgate Street Station, and the railway lines.

Baker's Court, Half Moon Street South out of Half Moon Street. In Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype, 1720-O.S. 1848-51).

Site now occupied by Broad Street Station.

Baker's Court, Middlesex Street West out of Middlesex Street at No. 16, in Portsoken Ward (Lockie, 1816-O.S. 1875). Between Hutchison Street and Ellison Street.

Site has been rebuilt.

Baker's Court, Old Bethlem Out of Old Bethlem, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (P.C. 1732).

Not named in the maps.

Qy.=Baker's Buildings (q.v.).

Baker's Court, Warwick Lane East out of Warwick Lane, in Castle Baynard Ward (O. and M. 1677).

Now " Crown Court " (q.v.).

Bakers' Hall On the east side of Harp Lane at No. 16. In Tower Ward (P.O Directory).

The Hall is mentioned as early as 1555 in Ct. Hust. Wills, II. p. 659, but the situation is not given.

Stow (ed. 1598, p. 135) says the house was formerly the dwelling house of John Chichele, Chamberlain of London, 1435-46 (Cal. L. Bk. K. pp.57, 400, etc.), but he does not say when it came into the hands of the Bakers' Company.

Destroyed by fire in 1715 and rebuilt. Restored and repaired 1825.

Baker's Yard East out of Little Tower Hill, near the Victualling Office (Hatton,1708-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Site now occupied by the Royal Mint.

Bakewell Hall See Blackwell Hall.

Balam's Court Out of Angel Alley in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype 1720).

The site is now occupied by the lines of the North London and Great Eastern Railways.

Balding's Yard See Baldwin's Court.

Baldwin's Court North out of Cloak Lane at No.18, east of Tower Royal, in Vintry Ward (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831).

Former name : " Baldings Yard " (Strype, ed. 1720).

But this is probably an error in the map, as in the text (I. iii. 13) it is referred to as " Baldwin's Yard."

The site has been rebuilt and is occupied by offices and business houses.

Baldwin's Gardens East out of Gray's Inn Lane to Leather Lane (P.O. Directory).

In parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, outside the City boundary, and within the precincts of the old Manor of Portpool, afterwards known as Gray's Inn.

Said to have been erected by Richard Baldwin in 1589, gardener to Queen Elizabeth, as recorded on a stone set into one of the houses before they were rebuilt (N. and Q. 11th> S. VI. p. 14).

Petition with reference to building there in 1626 (L. and P. Chas. I. I. 524).

" Baldwin's Rents " mentioned 1640 (ib. XVII. p. 13).

The privileges of sanctuary possessed by the inhabitants were abolished 1695-7.

Ball (Le) A tenement so called in parish of St. Martin Pomers, 1 H. VII. (Anc. Deeds, C. 596).

Not further identified.

Ball (The), St. Martin's le Grand A house so called in the parish of St. Martyns le grande, 1573 (Loud. Deeds, 1500-1600, No.13, part of Harben bequest to L.C.C.).

Not further identified.

Ball Alley, Aldersgate Street East out of Aldersgate Street, in Aldersgate Ward Without, near the Gate (Hatton, 1708-Boyle, 1799).

The site is now occupied by Falcon Street (q.v.).

Name derived from the sign.

Ball Alley, Cannon Street Out of Cannon Street (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Alley, Half Moon Alley, Bishopsgate Out of Half Moon Alley, Bishopsgate, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Boyle, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Alley, Lime Street East out of Lime Street, near the middle (Hatton, 1708-Elmes, 1831).

The site is now occupied by Fenchurch Avenue (q.v.).

Ball Alley, Lombard Street North out of Lombard Street at No. 54 on the west side of All Hallows Church (P.O. Directory). In Langbourn Ward.

First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Alluded to apparently though not by name in will of Robert Wright 1548 (End. Ch. All Hallows, Lombard Street, etc., 1902, p. 1).

Ball Alley, London Wall South out of London Wall. In Broad Street Ward (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

First mention : In Wardmote Inquest of Broad Street Ward in All Hallows Parish, 15 H. VIII. 1523 (L. and P. H. VIII. Dom. S. III. Pt. 2, p. 1515).

Site now occupied by warehouses, etc.

Ball Alley, Sherbourne Lane At. No. 5 Sherbourne Lane, opposite the Post Office Yard.

A dark passage leading into St. Swithin's Lane (Lockie, 1810-Elmes, 1831).

First mention : 23 Chas. II. 1671 (L.C.C. Deeds, Harben bequest, 1600-1700, No. 59).

Site now occupied by offices and business houses.

Ball Alley, St. Katherine's Out of St. Katherine's Lane, East Smithfield (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Alley, St. Paul's Churchyard Out of St. Paul's Churchyard.

Named after the " Ball," a house with such a sign standing there 1594-1603. John Newbury, the bookseller, dwelt there (Lond. Topog. Rec. III. 115).

No later mention.

Ball Alley, Thames Street South out of Thames Street to the Thames, east of Black-boy Alley in Castle Baynard Ward (Leake, 1666).

Not shown in the later maps.

Ball and Shears Court South-west out of Houndsditch (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1755). In Portsoken Ward.

Site now occupied by business houses.

Ball Court, Cornhill South out of Cornhill, at No.38, east of Birchin Lane (P.O. Directory). In Cornhill Ward.

First mention : Boyle, 1799.

It seems to be shown on the maps of the 18th century, etc., as Rocque, 1746, but not named.

Ball Court, Giltspur Street East out of Giltspur Street, in Farringdon Ward Without (Collmgwood, 1907).

First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Called " Bull Court " in Horwood, 1799. " Ball Yard," Rocque, 1746.

Site now occupied by the new Out-Patient Department and other buildings of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Ball Court, Jewry Street West out of Jewry Street. In Aldgate Ward (L.C.C. List of Streets, 1912) at No. 15 (Lockie, 1810).

Earliest mention : P.C. 1732.

Site rebuilt for offices and business houses.

Ball Court, Mincing Lane Out of Mincing Lane (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Court, Old Bailey East out of Old Bailey in Farringdon Ward Without (Hatton, 1708-Boyle, 1799).

Former name : " Bell Savage Yard " (O. and M. 1677).

Removed for the erection of the Sessions House. See Central Criminal Court.

Ball Court, Petticoat Lane Out of Petticoat Lane (Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Court, St. Katherine's East out of St. Katherine's Lane, a few doors from No.50 Upper East Smithfield (Strype, ed. 1755-Lockie, 1816).

Former name : " Ball Alley," P.C. 1732.

Removed for the formation of St. Katherine's Docks, etc.

Ball Yard In Beech Lane. In Cripplegate Ward Without (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Ball Yard, Giltspur Street See Ball Court.

Ballardes Lane West out of Chancery Lane.

A messuage in Chancery Lane is described as lying between the messuage in the tenure of the Six Clerks north and Ballard's Lane south and abutting on the highway called Chancellor Lane east and the field called Thicketfield west, 1530 (L. and P. H. VIII. V. p. 22).

The description would seem to indicate that this was the early name of Carey Street (q.v.).

Ballast Office See Old Trinity House.

Balmoral Buildings On the south side of Queen Victoria Street at No. 91 (P.O. Directory). In Queenhithe Ward, between Fye foot lane and Lambeth Hill.

First mention : L.C.C. list, 1901.

Baltic (The) See South Sea House.

Baltic Exchange On the east side of St. Mary Axe at Nos. 24-28 (P.O. Directory).

Former name : " Jeffrey's Square " (q.v.).

Commemorates the name of the Baltic (q.v.).

Bancor Inn See Bangor House.

Bandy Leg Alley By Fleet Ditch. In Farringdon Ward Without (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

¶Not named in the maps.

Bane's Court West out of Old Jewry, north of St. Olave's Church. In Coleman Street Ward (O. and M. 1677).

In Strype's maps the site is occupied by Mr. Parole's house, and now by the City Police Office (q.v.).

Bangor Court West out of Shoe Lane at No.63, in Farringdon Ward Without (W. Stow, 1722-Elmes, 1832).

The site was formerly occupied by the town house of the Bishops of Bangor, and was sold in 1647 to Sir John Barkstead and permission given to him to build on the site. (Act for preventing multiplicity of buildings in London, 1657.)

Removed for the erection of warehouses and site now occupied by Nos. 66 and 67, known as Bangor House.

See Bangor House.

Bangor House The town house of the Bishops of Bangor, in Shoe Lane.

It seems to be mentioned in 1349 as " Bancor Inn " (Ct. H.W. I. 581).

It adjoined the churchyard of St. Andrew, Holborn, and was leased in 1540, as parcel of the demesne lands of the bishopric of Bangor (L. and P. H. VIII. XV. 296).

It was purchased by Sir John Barkstead in 1647 with ground 168 ft. in length and 164 ft. in breadth, and permission was granted to him to build on the site. He does not, however, appear to have erected any buildings on the land. In 1660 at the Restoration it reverted to the Bishops of Bangor.

The last Bishop who resided there seems to have been Bishop Dolben. After his death the ground was leased out and inferior dwellings were erected on it, under the name of Bangor Court, although the remains of the mansion were still visible in 1805, as shown in Wilkinson's Londina Illustrata.

The Court was sold in 1826 under Act of Parliament, and after its removal about the middle of the 19th century, warehouses were erected on the site, now known as " Bangor House," being Nos. 66 and 67 Shoe Lane, the old name being by this means still commemorated.

Banister's Court, Blackfriars North out of Banister's Lane, Blackfriars. In Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).

The site is now occupied by Queen Victoria Street and St. Paul's Railway Station.

Banister's Lane East out of Blackfriars to Charles Street.

See Earl Street.

Bank Buildings On the west side of the Royal Exchange, at the junction of Cornhill, Poultry and Threadneedle Street, between Mansion House Street and Bank Street, opposite the Bank south. In Broad Street and Cornhill Wards (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

The site has been cleared and is now occupied by a drinking fountain and the Duke of Wellington's statue.

In the 18th century a number of small alleys occupied the site, as shown in Rocque's map, 1746, and in 1799 the new buildings that had been erected were in the occupation of the Sun Fire Office.

Bank Buildings At the junction of Princes Street and Lothbury (P.O. Directory).

First mention : L.C.C. list, 1912.

Pavement of red tesserae found here in 1895 at a depth of 17 feet.

Bank of England On the south side of Threadneedle Street, extending north to Lothbury, and from Princes Street west to Bartholomew Lane east (P.O. Directory).

In Broad Street and Coleman Street Wards, occupying an area of nearly four acres.

Founded 1694 by Wm. Paterson and held in Grocer's Hall until 1734, when it was removed to a building erected for the purpose, occupying a portion of the present site. The east and west wings were added 1786 by Sir Robert Taylor. Rebuilt in its present form 1827.

Consists of various courts, etc., such as Front Court Yard, Garden Court, Bullion Court, Lothbury Court, Residence Court, Waiting Court, Well Yard.

Garden Court occupies the site of the church of St. Christopher Le Stocks.

In Strype's map 1720 part of the site is occupied by Sir John Houblan's House, who was the first Governor of the Bank.

Among the courts and buildings demolished for the erection of the Bank are the following : Church of St. Christopher Le Stocks, house and garden of Sir John Houblan, Catherine Court, Christopher's Alley, Crown Tavern-Faulcon Court, Bishops Court, Naggs Head Court, Ship Tavern, Three Nunnes Alley, Drapers Court, Princes Court.

Roman pavement found under the south-west angle of the Bank, about 20 ft. to the west of the gate opening into Lothbury, at a depth of 12 feet. Other pavements found between Princes Street, Lothbury, and Bartholomew Lane (Arch. XXVII. 141, XXXIX. 496, XXXVI. 206, and LX. 237).

Bank of Scotland See Swiss Bankverein.

Bank Street North out of Cornhill, leading to the Bank of England and east of Bank Buildings in Broad Street and Cornhill Wards (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).

Occupied the site of the former Castle Court (O and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).

Site cleared before 1848 for widening the main thoroughfares.

Bankruptcy Affidavit Offices On the west side of Basinghall Street. In Bassishaw Ward within the precincts of the Guildhall. In Guildhall Buildings (P.O. Directory).

First mention : " Bankrupt Office," Elmes, 1831.

Erected there in 1820. Archt. Mr. Forster. On site of part of Blackwell Hall.

The Bankruptcy Information Office was at 35 Aldermanbury previously (Lockie, 1810), " Bankruptcy Court " in O.S. 1880.

Bannister's Lane, Blackfriars See Banister's Lane.

Baptist Head Coffee House In Fountain Court, Aldermanbury (Lockie, 1810).

The former site of this house, at the corner of Aldermanbury, facing Milk Street, was laid into the street 1760 (Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. 228).

Baptist's Alley West out of St. Martin's le Grand, in Aldersgate Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).

See John's Court.

Baptist's Head Court East out of Whitecross Street in Cripplegate Ward Without (O.S. 1880).

First mention : P.C. 1732.

Former names : " Annabaptist Court " (Strype, ed. 1720). " John Baptist Court " (O. and M. 1677).

The site has been rebuilt.

Named after a house with the sign of the Baptist's head here.

Bar of the New Temple See Temple Bar.

Bar of the Old Temple See Holborn Bars.

Barber Surgeons' Hall On the west side of Monkwell Street at No.32 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within (detached portion).

First mention : Stow, ed. 1598.

Former names : " Barbers' Hall " (P.C. 1732-O.S. 1880). " Barber Chirurgions (Chyrurgeons) Hall " (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1720).

A portion of the Hall rests on the basement of a tower of old London Wall.

Rebuilt 1678, and again 1752 and 1863-4. Old dining hall incorporated in warehouses erected on its site in 1864. Picture by Holbein in court-room.

Barbers and Surgeons incorporated as one Company 32 H. VIII. Dissolved 1745.

The Barbers were in old times the chief Surgeons of the country, and the position of the Company was similar to that now held by the Royal College of Surgeons (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. I. 346).

Barbers' Hall See Barber Surgeons' Hall.

Barbican East from Aldersgate Street at No.77 to Redcross Street and Golden Lane (P.O. Directory).

In Aldersgate Ward Without and Cripplegate Ward Without.

The first definite mention of the street occurs : " Barbecanstret," 1348 (Ct. H. W. I. 525).

Other forms : " la Barbycanstret," 1378 (ib. II. 201). Street called " Barbican," 1385-6 (ib. 252). Street called " le Barbican," 1408 (ib. 379).

Stow suggests that the street was formerly called Houndsditch (pp.71 and 433), but gives no authority for the statement, which is not confirmed by any of the records.

The street seems to have derived its name from a tower which at one time stood on the north side of it, fronting Redcross Street.

First mention : " Barbekan," 1294-5 (Ct. H.W. I. 119).

Stow says this tower was pulled down by Henry III. in 1267, when he occupied the city after the war with the Barons (p.71). If so, it would appear to have been rebuilt. The site was given by Edward III. to Robert Earl of Suffolk in 1336 by the name of his manor of Base Court, commonly called Barbican (ib.). The Earl of Suffolk's hostel there is mentioned in 1378 (Ct. H.W. II. 201).

In 1375-6 a gate was to be made at " la Barbekane " without Aldersgate (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 26). According to Strype the site was occupied by the Watch Tower, shown on Rocque's map, 1746, but in the O.S. 1875, the site is shown further to the north-west, on the north side of " Barbican" between Princes Street and Golden Lane.

The N.E.D. says the word is of uncertain origin, perhaps from Arabic or Persian words meaning the " House on the wall." It came into English through the O.F. " barbacane," Low Latin, " barbarcana," an outwork.

It is defined as (1) an outer fortification or defence to a city, a watch-tower. (2) a wooden tower or bulwark. (3) A loophole in the wall, out of which missiles could be hurled.

¶See Bas Court, Cripplegate.

Barbican Court North out of Barbican at No.67 in Aldersgate Ward Without (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

Barbolt Court In Fleet Street in 1653 (H. MSS. Com. 5th Rep. 394). Not named in the maps.

Bardi (The) A society into which certain Italian merchants formed themselves-the name being derived from the head of the house or firm (Arch. X. 242 n.).

In the Queen's Remembrancer Department is a bundle of documents containing records of a return made temp. Ed. I. of the quantity of wool in the possession of Italian merchants in England. One company making a return was called " La compaignie de Barde de Florenze " and another " La compaignie de Sire Barde Frescobald de Florenze" (ib. XXVII. 221).

They lent money to Edward I. Edward II. and Edward III. (ib. 243).

There was another company called " the Peruzzi " (Ct. H.W. II. 187).

A tenement in Lumbardstret abutting on " Lumbardstret " south, and " Cornhull " north was granted to the merchants of the society of the Bardi, 12 Bd. II. 1318 (Cal. P.R. Ed. II. 1317-24, p.246).

Barehouse Yard Out of Silver Street, Cripplegate (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Baremane Lane Shops in " Baremanelane " in parish of St. Mary Woolnoth or St. Mary de Newchirch devised by Master William de Wlchirchehawe to his son William, 1285 (Ct. H.W. I. 73).

Qy. = Bearbinder Lane.

Baremannes-Cherche See Martin (St.) in the Vintry.

Barge (The) A large messuage and tenements in the parish of St. Stephen Walbrook on the south side of Bucklersbury, belonging to St. Thomas of Acons. In Cheap Ward.

First mention : Granted to St. Thomas of Acres by will of Walter de Chesthunt, 1376 (Watney, 35), but not mentioned by name until deed of 1414," le Barge " (Watney, 268, quoting Cartulary, fo. 80).

There were remains of the house to be seen in Stow's time (S. 262) divided and let out in tenements.

The Mercers had houses there 34 H. VIII. 1543 (L. and P. H. VIII. XVIII. Pt. I, p.284).

Stow says it was so called of the sign of the " olde Barge " hung out there, and that it was a common report that when the Walbrook was open, barges were rowed out of the Thames and towed up here, so that the place has ever since been called the " Olde barge " (S. 262).

The memory of the past is still preserved in " Barge Yard " (q.v.).

Barge Yard South out of Bucklersbury at No.20 (P.O. Directory). In Cheap Ward.

First mention : O. and M. 1677.

Named from the messuage and tenements previously existing on the site called the Barge (q.v.).

Barkeleyes Inne Messuage in parish of St. Andrew Undershaft commonly called Barkeleyes Inne, belonging to Edward Earl of Rutland, 29 Eliz. 1587 (London, I. p.m. Br. Rec. Soc. III. p. 122).

No further reference.

Barker's Rents In Paul's Alley, Red Cross Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (Dodsley, 1761).

Not named in the maps.

Named after the owner or builder.

Barking Alley East out of Byward Street to Trinity Square, north of All Hallows Barking Church (Bacon's map, 1912). In Tower Ward.

Earliest mention : Strype, ed. 1720.

Widened 1862 by setting back the churchyard about 4 ft.

Name derived from the church.

See Barking Churchyard.

Barking Chapel See Mary (St.) de Berking Chapel.

Barking Church See All Hallows Barking.

Barking Church Yard North out of Great Tower Street, east of All Hallows Barking Church. In Tower Ward (P.O. Directory).

Earliest mention : O.S. ed. 1848-51.

Former names : " Barking Yard " (O. and M. 1677-P.C. 1732). " Barking Alley", (Rocque, 1746-Elmes, 1831).

This designation was also given to the present Barking Alley, north of the church (Lockie, 1810-O.S. ed. 1848-51), and these names seem to have been used interchangeably at different periods.

See Chick Lane.

Barking Court On the south side of Great Tower Street at No.40 (L.C.C. list, 1912). In Tower Ward.

So called in 1906, the former name of White Lion Court (q.v.) being abolished.

Barking Yard See Barking Church Yard.

Barklies Inn By the south end of Addle Hill, west from St. Benet's Church, almost against Puddle Wharf, an ancient building of stone and timber builded by the Lords of Barkley and called Barklies Inne. Now in ruins and let out in tenements. Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, lodged there temp. H. VI. (S. 368).

Site given on O.S.1875 on the north side of Upper Thames Street at its western end, opposite Rutland Wharf. Site now occupied by offices and warehouses, etc.

Barleymow Passage South out of Long Lane to Cloth Fair at No.45 (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

Formerly called : " Cloth Fair " (Rocque, 1746).

Named after a tavern of that sign. There is still a public house called " Barley Mow " at No.50 Long Lane.

Barn Yard North out of Beech Lane, in Cripplegate Ward Without. Near the boundary of the Ward (O. and M. 1677).

Between the present Beech Street and Beech Lane.

No later mention.

Site now occupied by warehouses.

Barnard's lnn On the south side of Holborn at No.22 in Farringdon Ward Without (P.O. Directory).

An Inn of Chancery, attached to Gray's Inn.

Extra parochial.

First mention : " Macworth lane " or " Barnardes Inn," 32 H. VI. 1454 (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1452-61, p. 145).

There is a long account of the Inn in N. and Q. 7th Series.

It appears from an Inquisition taken after the death of John Macworth, Dean of Lincoln, 1422-51, that licence was granted to his executor to demise a messuage in Holborn called " Macworth's lane " to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln for pious uses, and it is described as the property of the Dean and Chapter of St. Mary's Cathedral, Lincoln, in the Patent Roll temp. H. VI. quoted above.

At this time it was leased to one Lionel Bernard, by whose name it came to be known (Harl MS. 1104).

The messuage seems to have been used as an Inn of Chancery soon after this date, for it appears from the records in Lincoln Cathedral that the Dean and Chapter received a yearly rent in respect of the premises from the principal of the Inn, a term which suggests that it was occupied by students for some purpose or other.

At any rate in 1549 the society was fully established, with principal, antients and students, etc.

In temp. Q. Elizabeth some of the students were

residents, while some only kept the terms and resided in the country.

The old hall was originally constructed of timber, like the old manor houses of Cheshire and Shropshire, and may well have been in existence in the 15th century. The first definite reference to it occurs in 1566, when mention is made of the bow window in it. No trace of the old hall remains.

The property remained in the hands of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln until 1888, when the freehold was purchased by Mr. Bartle L. Frere, the Chapter having refused to renew the lease to the Inn (N. and Q. 7th S. II. and III.).

The Inn consisted of about a dozen houses and the hall is the smallest of the Inns of Chancery Halls.

¶Purchased by the Mercers' Company 1892 and rebuilt for their school, the hall being retained as the dining-hall of the school.

Sources and abbreviations[edit]

The following are among the sources and authorities which have been consulted, the abbreviations being those made use of throughout the work:-

A.S. Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, by Bosworth & Toller.

Agas. Map of London, c. 1570 by R. Agas. Reproduced by Vertue for the Society of Antiquaries. Another reproduction in the Guildhall.

Anc. Deeds. Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds preserved in the Public Records Office. Vols. I to VI. (The deeds are arranged in classes lettered A, B, C, D and numbered.)

Ancient Laws and Institutes of England. 2 vols. ed. Thorpe.

Ang. Sax. Chr. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. Plummer and Earle. 2 vols. Clarendon Press, and ed. Thorpe. 2 vols.

Ann. Lond., Ann. Paul. Annales Londoniensis and Annales Paulini, Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I and Edward II. (Rolls Series)

Ann. Mon. Annales Monastici. (Rolls Series)

Arch. Archæologia, being the publications of the Society of Antiquaries. (In progress.)

Bailey. History of the Tower of London.

Beavan. Aldermen of the City of London, by the Rev. A.B. Beavan. 2 vols.

B.M. British Museum MSS. and Charters. Harleian, Cottonian, Lansdowne, Additional Collections, etc.

Boyle, 1799. List of Streets, etc.

Cal. Charter R. Calendars of the Charter Rolls, prepared under the superintendences of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. (Cited by the sovereign and the number of the volume.) Rolls Series.

Cal. Cl. R. Calendars of the Close Rolls, as above. (Cited by the sovereign and the dates contained in the colume.)

Cal. Doc. France. Calendar of Documents in France, ed. J.H. Round. 2 vols.

Cal. P.R. Calendar of the Patent Rolls, as above.

Cal. Inq. p.m. Calendars Inquisitions post mortem, as above, and of Record Commission. 4 vols., folio.

Cal. F. of Fines. Lond and Midd. Calendar of the Feet of Fines for London and Middlesex. 2 vols, ed. Hardy.

Cal. L. Bk. Calendars of the Letter Books of the City of London, ed. by Dr. R.R. Sharpe for the Corporation of the City of London. (Numbered A-L.)

Cal. Hust. Wills. Calendar of Wills in the Court of Husting, London, ed. Dr. R.R. Sharpe. 2 vols.

Chron. Lond.,1189-1483. Chronicles of London. Ed. 1827.

Chron. Lond. Chronicles of London, ed. C.L. Kingsford.

Cart. Ang. Sax. Cartularium Anglo-Saxonicum, ed. Birch. 3 vols and Index.

Cod. Dipl. Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici, ed. J.N. Kemble.

Chronicles of England. , by William Malmsbury, Matthew Paris, Florence of Worcester, Grafton, Fabyan, Holinshed, etc. (Various editions.) Referred to by Chronicler's name.

Collingwood. Map in Directory of London, 1907.

Dipl. Ang. Sax. Diplomatarium Anglo-Saxonicum, ed. Thorpe.

D. and C. St Paul's MSS. Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Manuscripts in St Paul's Cathedral Library.

D. and C. Westminster MSS. Dean and Chapter of Westminster Manuscripts in Westminster Abbey.

Elmes, 1831. Elmes' Topographical Directory, 1831.

English Historical Review. (Several columes.)

Gent. Mag. Lib. Gentleman's Magazine Library, ed. Sir L. Gomme. London. Vols. XV, XVI, XVII.

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Horwood, 1799. Horwood's Map of London, 1794-99.

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I.T.R. Inner Temple Records.

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L. and P. H. VIII., etc. Calendars of the Letters and Papers of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, Commonwealth, Charles II, William III and Mary. Domestic Series in the Pubic Record Office. (Cited by the sovereign and volume.)

Lib. de Antiq. Leg. Liber de Antiquis Legibus. (Camden Society.)

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O.S. Ordnance Survey maps. Eds. 1848-1851, 1875, 1880, 1894.

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Trans. St. Paul's Ecc. Soc. Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society. 5 vols.

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Wheatley. London Past and Present, by H.B. Wheatley. 4 vols.

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Wilkinson. Londina Illustrata, by R. Wilkinson. 3 vols

Wilkinson. History of St Martin Outwich